Two components of the indoor environment which are generally taken into account are thermal comfort and indoor air quality. These may not be sufficient to describe the situation exactly since indoor air quality, in particular,needs to be fully specified. This paper describes central European research into the classic indoor environmental pollutants such as; asbestos, the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, carbon monoxide, environmental tobacco smoke,house dust, radon and formaldehyde, including work on their health effects. The allergenic and genotoxic properties of pollutants in the indoor environment,which have become the focus of our research interests in environmental studies, are also discussed. The problems of disinfecting air as a preventative measure against air-borne infections, with particular reference to hospital hygiene and specific requirements of the pharmaceutical industry, are briefly discussed. Specific approaches to risk assessment in recent central and eastern European health protection policy are described including expected future development.

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