Background: Ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is the most frequent medication to be involved in hypersensitivity drug reactions (HDRs). Other analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs in the arylpropionic group are also relevant, albeit to a lesser extent. Ibuprofen is widely consumed by people of all ages, both on medical prescription and over the counter; moreover, it is an organic contaminant of surface waters and foods. While numerous drugs cause HDR, ibuprofen’s underlying mechanisms are more intricate and involve both specific immunological and non-immunological mediated reactions. Summary: we concentrate on immediate responses, including urticaria with or without angioedema, anaphylaxis, and angioedema, classifying reactions according to whether they are caused by single or multiple NSAIDs and based on the mechanisms at play. Both groups may experience anaphylaxis, defined as an immediate, severe systemic reaction involving at least two organs, though the frequency and severity can vary. Following this classification, more clinical manifestations can be identified. Diagnosis is partly based on a detailed clinical history, including information about ibuprofen and/or other arylpropionic derivatives involved, the interval between drug intake and symptoms onset, clinical manifestations, number of episodes, and the patient’s tolerance or response to other medications – mainly non-chemically related NSAID – both before and after reactions to ibuprofen and/or other arylpropionic drugs. A drug provocation test is frequently necessary to make a diagnosis. Key Message: Because ibuprofen is the most widely prescribed NSAID, it is reasonable to assume its role as the leading cause of HDR will only become more important.

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