Introduction: T cells play a critical role in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Majie cataplasm (MJC) on asthma and to propose a possible mechanism involved in this process. Methods: Airway inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory cells, levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon (IFN)-γ, levels of Th2, Treg, Th17, and Th1 cells, and the expressions of IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3), Foxp3, RAR-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγt), and T-bet were detected. Result: MJC treatment reduced lung airway resistance and inflammatory infiltration in lung tissues. MJC treatment also reduced the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The levels of IL-4 and IL-17 in the blood, BALF, and lungs were suppressed by MJC, and IFN-γ and IL-10 were increased. Furthermore, MJC suppressed the percentage of Th2 and Th17 and increased the percentage of Th1 and Treg in spleen cells. In addition, MJC can inhibit asthma by increasing expressions of IFN-γ, IL-10, T-bet, and Foxp3, as well as decreasing expressions of IL-4, IL-17, GATA-3, and RORγt. Conclusion: MJC may improve airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation by regulating Th1/Th2/Treg/Th17 balance in ovalbumin-induced rats. And MJC may be a new source of anti-asthma drugs.

1.
Mims
JW
.
Asthma: definitions and pathophysiology
.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
.
2015
;
5
(
Suppl 1
):
S2
6
.
2.
Skloot
GS
.
Asthma phenotypes and endotypes: a personalized approach to treatment
.
Curr Opin Pulm Med
.
2016
;
22
(
1
):
3
9
.
3.
Loftus
P
,
Wise
S
.
Epidemiology of asthma
.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
.
2016
;
24
(
3
):
245
9
.
4.
Backman
H
,
Räisänen
P
,
Hedman
L
,
Stridsman
C
,
Andersson
M
,
Lindberg
A
, et al
.
Increased prevalence of allergic asthma from 1996 to 2006 and further to 2016-results from three population surveys
.
Clin Exp Allergy
.
2017
;
47
(
11
):
1426
35
.
5.
The global asthma report 2018
.
Auckland, New Zealand
:
Global Asthma Network
.
2018
.
6.
Dharmage
SC
,
Perret
JL
,
Custovic
A
.
Epidemiology of asthma in children and adults
.
Front Pediatr
.
2019
;
7
:
246
.
7.
Reddel
HK
,
FitzGerald
JM
,
Bateman
ED
,
Bacharier
LB
,
Becker
A
,
Brusselle
G
, et al
.
Gina 2019: a fundamental change in asthma management: treatment of asthma with short-acting bronchodilators alone is no longer recommended for adults and adolescents
.
Eur Respir J
.
2019
;
53
(
6
):
1901046
.
8.
Wang
X
, et al
.
Optimization of extraction Technology for effective ingredients from Majie pingchuan cataplasma by orthogonal test and transdermal characteristic investigation
.
Chin J Exp Traditional Med Formulae
.
2013
;
19
(
15
):
1
4
.
9.
Tao
J
,
Xue
D
,
Yu
M
.
Research overview on cataplasm of traditional Chinese medicine
.
Lishizhen Med Materia Med Res
.
2005
(
05
):
423
4
.
10.
Zhu
W
, et al
.
Experimental study on dermal safety of Majie Pingchuan cataplasm
.
J Beijing Univ Traditional Chin Med
.
2016
;
39
(
05
):
372
5
.
11.
Gu
X
, et al
.
Influence of Majie pingchuan extractive on activation and degranulation of RBL-2H3 mast cells
.
Guiding J Traditional Chin Med Pharm
.
2016
;
22
(
13
):
11
3+20
.
12.
Ji
W
,
Zhang
Q
,
Shi
H
,
Dong
R
,
Ge
D
,
Du
X
, et al
.
The mediatory role of Majie cataplasm on inflammation of allergic asthma through transcription factors related to Th1 and Th2
.
Chin Med
.
2020
;
15
:
53
.
13.
Ji
W
,
Shi
H
,
Feng
T
,
Zhang
S
,
Liu
H
,
Xu
W
, et al
.
Majie cataplasm promotes Th1 response to fight against asthmatic Th2 inflammation through NKs
.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
.
2022
;
2022
:
6745420
.
14.
Ji
W
,
Yu
X
,
Gao
Y
,
Ren
B
,
Zhang
S
,
Wang
Q
, et al
.
Majie cataplasm provides a shield against asthmatic punch from the neuroimmune system
.
Heliyon
.
2020
;
6
(
5
):
e03896
.
15.
Zissler
UM
,
Esser-von Bieren
J
,
Jakwerth
CA
,
Chaker
AM
,
Schmidt-Weber
CB
.
Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma
.
Allergy
.
2016
;
71
(
4
):
475
94
.
16.
Kappen
JH
,
Durham
SR
,
Veen
HI
,
Shamji
MH
.
Applications and mechanisms of immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis and asthma
.
Ther Adv Respir Dis
.
2017
;
11
(
1
):
73
86
.
17.
Rogala
B
,
Bozek
A
,
Gluck
J
,
Jarzab
J
.
Prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy and evaluation of Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in patients with severe bronchial asthma
.
Postepy Dermatol Alergol
.
2015
;
32
(
4
):
274
80
.
18.
Saito
S
,
Nakashima
A
,
Shima
T
,
Ito
M
.
Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T-cell paradigm in pregnancy
.
Am J Reprod Immunol
.
2010
;
63
(
6
):
601
10
.
19.
Bedoya
SK
,
Lam
B
,
Lau
K
,
Larkin
J
3rd
.
Th17 cells in immunity and autoimmunity
.
Clin Dev Immunol
.
2013
;
2013
:
986789
.
20.
Newcomb
DC
,
Peebles
RS
.
Th17-mediated inflammation in asthma
.
Curr Opin Immunol
.
2013
;
25
(
6
):
755
60
.
21.
Aron
JL
,
Akbari
O
.
Regulatory T cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cell-dependent asthma
.
Allergy
.
2017
;
72
(
8
):
1148
55
.
22.
Martin-Orozco
E
,
Norte-Munoz
M
,
Martinez-Garcia
J
.
Regulatory T cells in allergy and asthma
.
Front Pediatr
.
2017
;
5
:
117
.
23.
Liu
H
,
Guo
Y
,
Zhu
R
,
Wang
L
,
Chen
B
,
Tian
Y
, et al
.
Fructus Ligustri Lucidi preserves bone quality through induction of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in ovariectomized rats
.
Phytother Res
.
2021
;
35
(
1
):
424
41
.
24.
Maddur
MS
,
Miossec
P
,
Kaveri
SV
,
Bayry
J
.
Th17 cells: biology, pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and therapeutic strategies
.
Am J Pathol
.
2012
;
181
(
1
):
8
18
.
25.
Richard
EA
,
Depecker
M
,
Defontis
M
,
Leleu
C
,
Fortier
G
,
Pitel
PH
, et al
.
Cytokine concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from horses with neutrophilic inflammatory airway disease
.
J Vet Intern Med
.
2014
;
28
(
6
):
1838
44
.
26.
Chang
HS
,
Lee
TH
,
Jun
JA
,
Baek
AR
,
Park
JS
,
Koo
SM
, et al
.
Neutrophilic inflammation in asthma: mechanisms and therapeutic considerations
.
Expert Rev Respir Med
.
2017
;
11
(
1
):
29
40
.
27.
Radermecker
C
,
Louis
R
,
Bureau
F
,
Marichal
T
.
Role of neutrophils in allergic asthma
.
Curr Opin Immunol
.
2018
;
54
:
28
34
.
28.
He
Y
,
Lou
X
,
Jin
Z
,
Yu
L
,
Deng
L
,
Wan
H
.
Mahuang decoction mitigates airway inflammation and regulates IL-21/STAT3 signaling pathway in rat asthma model
.
J Ethnopharmacol
.
2018
;
224
:
373
80
.
29.
Li
Y
, et al
.
CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T cells, Foxp3 gene and protein expression contribute to antiasthmatic effects of San'ao decoction in mice model of asthma
.
Phytomedicine
.
2014
;
21
(
5
):
656
562
.
30.
Khan
AM
,
Shahzad
M
,
Raza Asim
MB
,
Imran
M
,
Shabbir
A
.
Zingiber officinale ameliorates allergic asthma via suppression of Th2-mediated immune response
.
Pharm Biol
.
2015
;
53
(
3
):
359
67
.
31.
Zhang
Y
,
Zhang
Y
,
Gu
W
,
Sun
B
.
TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals
.
Adv Exp Med Biol
.
2014
;
841
:
15
44
.
32.
Ko
FW
,
Lun
SWM
,
Wong
CK
,
Szeto
CC
,
Lam
CWK
,
Leung
TF
, et al
.
Decreased T-bet expression and changes in chemokine levels in adults with asthma
.
Clin Exp Immunol
.
2007
;
147
(
3
):
526
32
.
33.
Yong
J
,
Chen
GQ
,
Huang
B
,
Wu
S
.
Correlation between the ratio of T-bet/GATA-3 and the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in patients with allergic asthma
.
Mol Med Rep
.
2011
;
4
(
4
):
663
6
.
34.
Kardan
M
,
Rafiei
A
,
Ghaffari
J
,
Valadan
R
,
Morsaljahan
Z
,
Haj-Ghorbani
ST
.
Effect of ginger extract on expression of GATA3, T-bet and ROR-γt in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Allergic Asthma
.
Allergol Immunopathol
.
2019
;
47
(
4
):
378
85
.
35.
Ahui
ML
,
Champy
P
,
Ramadan
A
,
Pham Van
L
,
Araujo
L
,
Brou André
K
, et al
.
Ginger prevents Th2-mediated immune responses in a mouse model of airway inflammation
.
Int Immunopharmacol
.
2008
;
8
(
12
):
1626
32
.
36.
Fasching
P
,
Stradner
M
,
Graninger
W
,
Dejaco
C
,
Fessler
J
.
Therapeutic potential of targeting the Th17/treg Axis in autoimmune disorders
.
Molecules
.
2017
;
22
(
1
):
134
.
37.
Sun
YC
,
Zhou
QT
,
Yao
WZ
.
Sputum interleukin-17 is increased and associated with airway neutrophilia in patients with severe asthma
.
Chin Med J
.
2005
;
118
(
11
):
953
6
.
38.
Lin
CC
,
Wang
YY
,
Chen
SM
,
Liu
YT
,
Li
JQ
,
Li
F
, et al
.
Shegan-Mahuang Decoction ameliorates asthmatic airway hyperresponsiveness by downregulating Th2/Th17 cells but upregulating CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs
.
J Ethnopharmacol
.
2020
;
253
:
112656
.
39.
Ma
CH
,
Ma
ZQ
,
Fu
Q
,
Ma
SP
.
Ma Huang Tang ameliorates asthma though modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines and inhibition of Th17 cells in ovalbumin-sensitized mice
.
Chin J Nat Med
.
2014
;
12
(
5
):
361
6
.
40.
Jiang
H
,
Duan
J
,
Xu
K
,
Zhang
W
.
Resveratrol protects against asthma-induced airway inflammation and remodeling by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway
.
Exp Ther Med
.
2019
;
18
(
1
):
459
66
.
41.
Fitzpatrick
AM
,
Higgins
M
,
Holguin
F
,
Brown
LAS
,
Teague
WG
;
National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program
.
The molecular phenotype of severe asthma in children
.
J Allergy Clin Immunol
.
2010
;
125
(
4
):
851
7.e18
.
42.
Drevytska
T
,
Morhachov
R
,
Tumanovska
L
,
Portnichenko
G
,
Nagibin
V
,
Boldyriev
O
, et al
.
shRNA-induced knockdown of a bioinformatically predicted target IL10 influences functional parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats with asthma
.
J Integr Bioinform
.
2018
;
15
(
4
):
20180053
.
43.
Meiler
F
,
Zumkehr
J
,
Klunker
S
,
Rückert
B
,
Akdis
CA
,
Akdis
M
.
In vivo switch to IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells in high dose allergen exposure
.
J Exp Med
.
2008
;
205
(
12
):
2887
98
.
44.
Noh
J
,
Lee
JH
,
Noh
G
,
Bang
SY
,
Kim
HS
,
Choi
WS
, et al
.
Characterisation of allergen-specific responses of IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Br1) in cow milk allergy
.
Cell Immunol
.
2010
;
264
(
2
):
143
9
.
45.
Kawamoto
Y
,
Ueno
Y
,
Nakahashi
E
,
Obayashi
M
,
Sugihara
K
,
Qiao
S
, et al
.
Prevention of allergic rhinitis by ginger and the molecular basis of immunosuppression by 6-gingerol through T cell inactivation
.
J Nutr Biochem
.
2016
;
27
:
112
22
.
46.
Sh
J
, et al
.
Pharmacodynamic study of sinapine thiocyanate dissoluble microneedle for acupoint administration against bronchial asthma
.
China Pharm
.
2022
;
33
(
22
):
2728
32
.
47.
Huang
P
,
Tang
Y
,
Li
C
,
Zhou
H
,
Yu
L
,
Wan
H
, et al
.
Correlation study between the pharmacokinetics of seven main active ingredients of Mahuang decoction and its pharmacodynamics in asthmatic rats
.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
.
2020
;
183
:
113144
.
48.
Sun
Y-B
,
Ni
Y
,
Fan
XS
,
Zhou
LP
,
Yue
QF
,
Shang
EX
.
Effect of Houpo-Mahuang Decoction on aggravated asthma induced by cigarette smoke and the expression of TRPA1 and tight junctions in mice
.
J Ethnopharmacol
.
2022
;
293
:
115217
.
49.
Lee
IT
,
Yang
C-M
.
Inflammatory signalings involved in airway and pulmonary diseases
.
Mediators Inflamm
.
2013
;
2013
:
791231
.
50.
Kauppinen
A
,
Suuronen
T
,
Ojala
J
,
Kaarniranta
K
,
Salminen
A
.
Antagonistic crosstalk between NF-κB and SIRT1 in the regulation of inflammation and metabolic disorders
.
Cell Signal
.
2013
;
25
(
10
):
1939
48
.
51.
Rios
R
,
Silva
HBF
,
Carneiro
NVQ
,
Pires
AO
,
Carneiro
TCB
,
Costa
RDS
, et al
.
Solanum paniculatum L. decreases levels of inflammatory cytokines by reducing NFKB, TBET and GATA3 gene expression in vitro
.
J Ethnopharmacol
.
2017
;
209
:
32
40
.
52.
Chauhan
PS
,
Singh
DK
,
Dash
D
,
Singh
R
.
Intranasal curcumin regulates chronic asthma in mice by modulating NF-ĸB activation and MAPK signaling
.
Phytomedicine
.
2018
;
51
:
29
38
.
You do not currently have access to this content.