Introduction: This study aim to analyzed the main pollen allergen components that cause allergic asthma and/or rhinitis and the cross-reactions between the allergen components. Methods: Twenty one allergic rhinitis patients and 23 allergic asthma patients with pollen sensitization from the China Biological Information Repository of Respiratory Diseases were included. All the patients were detected serum pollen allergens components specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) including Betula verrucosa (Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Bet v 4), Quercus alba (Pla a 1, Pla a 2), Ambrosia elatior (Amb a 1), Artemisia vulgaris (Art v 1, Art v 3, Art v 4), Bermuda grass (Cyn d 1, Cyn d 12), Phleum pratense (Phl p 5, Phl p 1, Phl p 4, Phl p 7, Phl p 12), and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Results: In patients with asthma, Phl p 4 had the highest positive rate (60.9%), followed by Phl p 1 (43.5%) and Pla a 2 (34.8%), while in patients with rhinitis, Amb a 1 had the highest positive rate (71.4%), followed by Phl p 4 (61.9%) and Pla a 2 (42.9%). Meanwhile, Phl p 1 (43.5%) in asthma patients was higher than that in rhinitis (4.7%, p = 0.03), while Amb a 1 (71.4%) in rhinitis patients was higher than that in asthma (26.1%, p = 0.03). Interestingly, optimal scale analysis show that the severity of both asthma and rhinitis is related to Bet v 4 (Cronbach’s Alpha = 95.0%). Conclusions: In general, Phl p 4 is the main allergenic component in pollen sensitized asthma patients, while Amb a 1 is the main allergenic component in pollen sensitized rhinitis patients. Sensitization to Bet v 4 may lead to more severe symptoms, and this result may be applied in future clinical precise diagnosis.

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