Introduction: Changes in the cytokine profile from type 2 to type 1 together with the induction of regulatory cells are expected during hymenoptera venom immunotherapy (VIT). The present study was aimed to investigate the changes in type 1, type 2, and regulatory cytokines induced by a Vespula spp. VIT in patients with anaphylaxis to Vespa velutina.Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with anaphylaxis due to Vespa velutina were treated with Vespula spp. VIT. Serum cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-ɣ) were measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months after starting VIT. Results: A significant increase in serum IFN-y was detected after 6 and 12 months of VIT. An increase in serum IL-10 and a decrease in IL-5 were observed after 12 months. IL-4 was undetectable all along the study, and an unexpected increase of IL-13 was present at 12 months of treatment. Conclusion:Vespula spp. VIT seems to be able to induce a shift to type 1 cytokine production measured through IFN-y levels and IL-10 production after, at least, 6 and 12 months of VIT, respectively.

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