Introduction: Hazelnuts are a leading trigger of food allergy. To date, several molecular components of hazelnut are available for component-resolved diagnosis. However, little is known about how simultaneous sensitization to multiple allergens affects the severity of the hazelnut-induced reaction. In a previous study, our group demonstrated a lower risk of systemic reactions to peach in patients sensitized to both Pru p 3 and Pru p 1 than in the patient monosensitized to peach LTP. We aimed to assess whether this was also true in hazelnut allergy in a cohort of adult patients. Methods: Patients were selected based on a history of symptoms such as urticaria, vomiting, diarrhea, asthma, and anaphylaxis indicative of hazelnut IgE-mediated food allergy and graded according to a clinical severity scale. For all patients, specific IgE was determined for Cor a 1 and Cor a 8 and, for most patients, also Cor a 9. Patients were offered an oral food challenge in open format (OFC) with a cocoa-based roasted hazelnut spread on a voluntary basis in order to prescribe an appropriate diet. Results: A total of two hundred and fourteen patients were recruited. Among these, 43 patients were monosensitized to Cor a 8. One hundred and seventy-one patients were sensitized to Cor a 1 (79.9%), and, among them, 48/171 (28.1%) were also Cor a 8 positive. Cor a 9 was evaluated in 124/214 patients, testing positive in 21/124 (16.9%). Patients monosensitized to Cor a 8 experienced systemic reactions more frequently than those sensitized to Cor a 1 ± Cor a 8 (p < 0.00001), with significantly more severe reactions (p < 0.0005) and testing more frequently positive at OFC (p < 0.0001). Regarding Cor a 9, the sensitized patients were significantly younger (p = 0.0013) and showed reactions of similar severity to patients who tested Cor a 9 negative, and these reactions were milder than in patients monosensitized only to Cor a 8. Discussion/Conclusion: Sensitization to Cor a 1 seems to protect from the development of the severe systemic reactions induced by Cor a 8 sensitization, Cor a 9 does not influence the severity of symptoms in adult patients. The OFC with roasted hazelnut may help in dietary guidance.

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