Introduction: Comorbidities, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), are common in patients with rhinosinusitis (RS). However, the link between RS and GERD has not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the causal relationship between GERD and acute (ARS) or chronic RS (CRS), providing references for the pathogenesis and management of RS. Methods: The data were obtained from the Integrative Epidemiology Unit Open GWAS project and FinnGen. A total of 972,838 individuals were included. The inverse variance-weighted (IVW) method was applied to obtain the primary results of the study. Weighted median, MR-Egger, and mode-based methods were used to determine the robustness of the results. Cochran’s Q statistic and MR-Egger method were applied to detect heterogeneity and pleiotrophy in instrumental variables (IVs). Other sensitivity analyses included MR-PRESSO and leave-one-out analysis. Results: The MR study showed that GERD was associated with an increased risk of CRS (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.18–1.57, p < 0.001). The results of other analysis methods were broadly consistent with the IVW estimate. No heterogeneity was detected by Cochran’s Q test (p = 0.061) and MR-PRESSO (p = 0.074). No horizontal pleiotropy was shown in IVs (p = 0.700). GERD was also associated with an increased risk of ARS (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.17–1.48, p < 0.001). Some analytical results were inconsistent with the IVW estimate. No heterogeneity and pleiotropy were observed. There was no sufficient evidence for a reverse causal effect of RS on GERD. Conclusion: Our study supported that GERD promoted the risk of CRS and may be a potential risk factor for ARS. This provides additional support for further investigation into the mechanisms of GERD on RS.

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