Introduction: Asthma has been attributed to Th1/Th2 imbalance and inappropriate Th2 responses to environmental allergens. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), 21 to 23 RNA molecules, are first found in mammals and have been implicated in various biological activities. Our previous study found that miR-410 effectively ameliorates airway inflammation in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma murine model. However, the role of miR-410 in regulating helper T (Th) cell differentiation is not clear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the regulatory effects of miR-410 on the differentiation of Th cells through both in vivo and in vitro studies. Methods: Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to find if miR-410 has any direct binding position with VEGF mRNAs. PBMC and CD4+ T cells were isolated and stimulated with OVA. The miR-410 mimics and inhibitors were transfected into CD4+ T cells. The differentiation of Th cells was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the concentration of IL-4, IFN-γ, and TGF-β levels in supernatants. Western Blot was used to detect protein expression and phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT. BALB/c mice were kept in a specific pathogen-free condition and received sterile OVA-free food and water. OVA-induced asthmatic mice model was established. ELISA was used to measure the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) concentrations of IL-4, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and VEGF. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were conducted to analyze inflammatory cell infiltration, pathological changes, and the expression of VEGF. Results: Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-410 has no direct binding position with VEGF mRNAs. In the OVA-primed mononuclear cells compared to normal cells, IFN-γ and TGF-β were decreased while IL-4 and VEGF were increased. This change was reversed while miRNA-410 mimics were transfected into CD4+ T cells. Besides, the OVA-primed CD4+ T cells treated with miR-410 decrease the proliferation of cytokine of Th2 cells as well as phosphorylation of PI3K, and AKT. In OVA-induced asthma mice, IFN-γ and TGF-β were decreased in BALF while the IL-4 and VEGF were increased. OVA-induced mice with asthma treated with miR-410 mimics showed marked reductions in the infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as IL-4 and VEGF in BALF. The immunohistochemical staining of the expression of VEGF also decreased in OVA-induced asthma mice with the instillation of miR-410. Conclusions: In this study, we revealed that miR-410 could regulate the differentiation of Th cells via the PI3K-AKT-VEGF signaling pathway in asthma.

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