Introduction: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is associated with a substantial health care burden. In Japan, clinical patient profiles in real-life settings and evidence on economic burden of AR are limited. We studied clinical characteristics of patients with AR in Japan, and their impact on health care resource utilization (HCRU) and associated costs. Methods: This was a noninterventional study in patients aged ≥2 years with ≥2 physician-diagnosed AR, from a Japanese Claims Database, conducted from 2009 to 2018. The study comprised 6 cohorts; 1 primary, 3 secondary (cohorts 1, 2, 2-s), and 2 comparison cohorts 1 and 2-s (matched surgery and non-surgery). The primary objective was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in primary cohort. The secondary objectives were assessment of demographic and clinical characteristics in secondary cohorts and comparison of HCRU-related variables and allergic comorbidities between comparison cohorts. Results: Of 5,260,253 subjects data retrieved, 879,348 were included in primary cohort, with demographics and clinical characteristics being consistent across study period. Most frequent AR-related comorbidities were allergic conjunctivitis (41.7%) and asthma (38.6%). By 2018, 4,246 patients were included in secondary cohort 1, 866,453 in secondary cohort 2, 258,855 in secondary cohort 2-s, 3,496 in comparison cohort 1, and 13,984 in comparison cohort 2-s. Monthly HCRU-related variables between comparison cohort 1 and comparison 2-s indicated that AR-related surgeries and prescriptions peaked in prepollen and pollen seasons, respectively. HCRU and related costs were comparable but slightly higher in surgery than in non-surgery cohort. Conclusion: Real-world evidence of patients with AR highlights the need for cost-effective health care with opportunities for developing novel therapies.

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