Background: The order Fagales represents an important cause of tree-pollen allergy in northern countries. We investigated the IgE recognition profiles, mutual relationships, and association with clinical symptoms of a panel of allergens belonging to the PR-10 family, the main proteins responsible for Fagales allergy (Act d 8, Aln g 1, Api g 1, Ara h 8, Bet v 1, Cor a 1.0101, Cor a 1.0401, Gly m 4, Mal d 1, and Pru p 1). Methods: A total of 526 PR-10-reactive subjects living in central and southern Italy were studied by ImmunoCAP-ISAC-112 microarray analysis. Results: Overall, Bet v 1 reactivity was the most commonly (74%) observed among PR-10 proteins, but Cor a 1.0101 was the most prevalent in participants aged <6 years, and between 15 and 65 years. Overall, 26% of the PR-10-reactive persons were Bet v 1 negative, whilst 93.6% of the PR-10 polyreactive individuals were Bet v 1 positive. Among the 10 PR-10s evaluated, 100 combinations were recorded. The strongest association was observed between molecules with the highest sequence identities (Bet v 1 and Cor a 1.0101, Cor a 1.0401 or Aln g 1; Mal d 1 and Pru p 1). Bet v 1-, Cor a 1.0101-, and Aln g 1-specific IgE recognition was associated with respiratory symptoms, whilst Ara h 8, Cor a 1.0401, Gly m 4, Mal d 1, and Pru p 1 were selectively linked to an oral allergic syndrome. Conclusions: Testing IgE reactivity to a panel of PR-10s in a birch-free area discloses peculiar relationships between clinical phenotypes and sensitization profiles, allowing the identification of novel cluster patterns.

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