Background: The existence of IgE binding to dog dander extract without IgE antibodies against the described dog allergens (Can f 1, 2, 3 and 4) implies the presence of other dog allergens yet to be identified. Recently, an IgE-binding protein was isolated from dog urine and identified as prostatic kallikrein; it has been named Can f 5. Cross-reactivity between a dog dander allergen and human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been described. The aim of this study was to identify the dog dander allergen that presents cross-reactivity with PSA and demonstrate its clinical relevance in our patient with human seminal plasma allergy. Methods: SDS-PAGE immunoblotting and inhibition tests were performed. Mass spectrometry was carried out to identify the protein involved in the allergy reactions. Results: SDS-PAGE immunoblotting-inhibition with an IgE-binding protein from dog prostatic secretion showed total IgE binding inhibition to a 28-kDa IgE-reactive band identified as PSA. The electroeluted protein from dog prostatic secretion was identified by mass spectrometry as Can f 5. IgE immunoblotting of human seminal plasma incubated with the serum of the patient revealed two IgE-binding bands (28 and 32.7 kDa). Both SDS-PAGE immunoblotting inhibition assays, with human seminal plasma or purified PSA in solid phase, showed complete IgE binding inhibition when the serum of the anaphylactic patient was preincubated with dog dander extract or recombinant Can f 5. Conclusions: The dog dander allergen that shows cross-reactivity with human PSA has been characterized and turns out to be the recently described Can f 5. We demonstrated the clinical relevance of this cross-reactivity in a patient.