Spices are the most attractive ingredients to confer an authentic taste to food. As they are derived from plants, they harbour allergenic potency and can induce symptoms ranging from mild local to severe systemic reactions. Due to the content of pharmacologically active substances of spices, the diagnosis of allergy and the differentiation from intolerance reactions may be difficult. Association with inhalative allergies via IgE cross-reactivity, but also direct gastrointestinal sensitization plays a role. This article is a botanical and allergological overview of the most important spices and molecules responsible for eliciting IgE-mediated reactions or cross-reactions. As no curative treatments are known at present, strict avoidance is recommended and, therefore, accurate labelling of pre-packed food is necessary.

1.
Kondo Y, Urisu A, Tokuda R: Identification and characterization of the allergens in the tomato fruit by immunoblotting. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001;126:294–299.
2.
Errahali Y, Morisset M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, et al: Allergen in soy oils. Allergy 2002;57:648–649.
3.
Ebo DG, Schuerwegh A, Stevens WJ: Anaphylaxis to starch. Allergy 2000;55:1098–1099.
4.
Hofer T, Wuthrich B: [Food allergy. II. Prevalence of organ manifestations of allergy-inducing food. A study on the basis of 173 cases, 1978–1982. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1985;115:1437–1442.
5.
Muhlemann RJ, Wuthrich B: Food allergies 1983–1987. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1991;121:1696–1700.
6.
Moneret-Vautrin DA, Morisset M, Lemerdy P, Croizier A, Kanny G: Food allergy and IgE sensitization caused by spices: CICBAA data (based on 589 cases of food allergy). Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2002;34:135–140.
7.
Dalal I, Binson I, Reifen R, et al: Food allergy is a matter of geography after all: Sesame as a major cause of severe IgE-mediated food allergic reactions among infants and young children in Israel. Allergy 2002;57:362–365.
8.
Kanny G, Hatahet R, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Kohler C, Bellut A: Allergy and intolerance to flavouring agents in atopic dermatitis in young children. Allerg Immunol (Paris) 1994;26:204–206; 209–210.
9.
Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Skuric Z, et al: Immunological and respiratory findings in spice-factory workers. Environ Res 1988;47:95–108.
10.
Feo F, Martinez J, Martinez A, et al: Occupational allergy in saffron workers. Allergy 1997;52:633–641.
11.
Arias Irigoyen J, Talavera Fabuel A, Maranon Lizana F: Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis from white pepper. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2003;13:213–215.
12.
Garcia-Gonzalez JJ, Bartolome-Zavala B, Fernandez-Melendez S, et al: Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and food allergy because of aniseed sensitization. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88:518–522.
13.
Cueva B, Izquierdo G, Crespo JF, Rodriguez J: Unexpected spice allergy in the meat industry. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:144.
14.
Sastre J, Olmo M, Novalvos A, Ibanez D, Lahoz C: Occupational asthma due to different spices. Allergy 1996;51:117–120.
15.
Fraj J, Lezaun A, Colas C, Duce F, Dominguez MA, Alonso MD: Occupational asthma induced by aniseed. Allergy 1996;51:337–339.
16.
Anliker MD, Borelli S, Wuthrich B: Occupational protein contact dermatitis from spices in a butcher: A new presentation of the mugwort-spice syndrome. Contact Dermatitis 2002;46:72–74.
17.
Meding B: Skin symptoms among workers in a spice factory. Contact Dermatitis 1993;29:202–205.
18.
Pastorello EA, Pompei C, Pravettoni V, et al: Lipid transfer proteins and 2S albumins as allergens. Allergy 2001;56(suppl 67):45–47.
19.
Foti C, Carino M, Cassano N, Panebianco R, Vena GA, Ambrosi L: Occupational contact urticaria from paprika. Contact Dermatitis 1997;37:135.
20.
Schwartz HJ, Jones RT, Rojas AR, Squillace DL, Yunginger JW: Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to fennel seed. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997;78:37–40.
21.
van den Akker TW, van Toorenenbergen AW, van Joost T: Analysis of delayed-type immunological responses to spices by patch testing. Curr Probl Dermatol 1991;20:232–236.
22.
van den Akker TW, Roesyanto-Mahadi ID, van Toorenenbergen AW, van Joost T: Contact allergy to spices. Contact Dermatitis 1990;22:267–272.
23.
Monreal P, Botey J, Pena M, Marin A, Eseverri JL: Mustard allergy. Two anaphylactic reactions to ingestion of mustard sauce. Ann Allergy 1992;69:317–320.
24.
Malish D, Glovsky MM, Hoffman DR, Ghekiere L, Hawkins JM: Anaphylaxis after sesame seed ingestion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981;67:35–38.
25.
Jorro G, Morales C, Braso JV, Pelaez A: Mustard allergy: Three cases of systemic reaction to ingestion of mustard sauce. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1995;5:54–56.
26.
Wuthrich B, Schmid-Grendelmeyer P, Lundberg M: Anaphylaxis to saffron. Allergy 1997;52:476–477.
27.
Bock SA: Anaphylaxis to coriander: A sleuthing story. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91:1232–1233.
28.
Ohnuma N, Yamaguchi E, Kawakami Y: Anaphylaxis to curry powder. Allergy 1998;53:452–454.
29.
Chiu AM, Zacharisen MC: Anaphylaxis to dill. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;84:559–560.
30.
Vega de la Osada F, Esteve Krauel P, Alonso Lebrero E, Ibanez Sandin MD, Munoz Martinez MC, Laso Borrego MT: Sensitization to paprika: Anaphylaxis after intake and rhinoconjunctivitis after contact through airways. Med Clin (Barc) 1998;111:263–266.
31.
Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R: Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157–162.
32.
Chan EF, Mowad C: Contact dermatitis to foods and spices. Am J Contact Dermat 1998;9:71–79.
33.
Sainio EL, Kanerva L: Contact allergens in toothpastes and a review of their hypersensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 1995;33:100–105.
34.
Morton CA, Garioch J, Todd P, Lamey PJ, Forsyth A: Contact sensitivity to menthol and peppermint in patients with intra-oral symptoms. Contact Dermatitis 1995;32:281–284.
35.
Sanchez-Perez J, Garcia-Diez A: Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from eugenol, oil of cinnamon and oil of cloves in a physiotherapist. Contact Dermatitis 1999;41:346–347.
36.
Rudzki E, Grzywa Z: Sensitizing and irritating properties of star anise oil. Contact Dermatitis 1976;2:305–308.
37.
Kanny G, De Hauteclocque C, Moneret-Vautrin DA: Sesame seed and sesame seed oil contain masked allergens of growing importance. Allergy 1996;51:952–957.
38.
Ferguson JE, Beck MH: Contact sensitivity to vanilla in a lip salve. Contact Dermatitis 1995;33:352.
39.
Armisen M, Rodriguez V, Vidal C: Photoaggravated allergic contact dermatitis due to Rosmarinus officinalis cross-reactive with Thymus vulgaris. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48:52–53.
40.
Niinimaki A: Delayed-type allergy to spices. Contact Dermatitis 1984;11:34–40.
41.
Niinimaki A: Double-blind placebo-controlled peroral challenges in patients with delayed-type allergy to balsam of Peru. Contact Dermatitis 1995;33:78–83.
42.
Jensen-Jarolim E, Gajdzik L, Haberl I, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Graf J: Hot spices influence permeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayers. J Nutr 1998;128:577–581.
43.
Chao AC, Nguyen JV, Broughall M, et al: Enhancement of intestinal model compound transport by DS-1, a modified Quillaja saponin. J Pharm Sci 1998;87:1395–1399.
44.
Leitner A, Jensen-Jarolim E, Grimm R, et al: Allergens in pepper and paprika. Immunologic investigation of the celery-birch-mugwort-spice syndrome. Allergy 1998;53:36–41.
45.
Ebner C, Jensen-Jarolim E, Leitner A, Breiteneder H: Characterization of allergens in plant-derived spices: Apiaceae spices, pepper (Piperaceae), and paprika (bell peppers, Solanaceae). Allergy 1998;53:52–54.
46.
Jensen-Jarolim E, Gerstmayer G, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Ebner H, Ebner C: Serological characterization of allergens in poppy seeds. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:1075–1079.
47.
Jensen-Jarolim E, Leitner A, Hirschwehr R, et al: Characterization of allergens in Apiaceae spices: Anise, fennel, coriander and cumin. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:1299–1306.
48.
Gloor M, Kagi M, Wuthrich B: Poppyseed anaphylaxis. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1995;125:1434–1437.
49.
Vocks E, Borga A, Szliska C, et al: Common allergenic structures in hazelnut, rye grain, sesame seeds, kiwi, and poppy seeds. Allergy 1993;48:168–172.
50.
Bauer L, Ebner C, Hirschwehr R, et al: IgE cross-reactivity between birch pollen, mugwort pollen and celery is due to at least three distinct cross-reacting allergens: Immunoblot investigation of the birch-mugwort-celery syndrome. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:1161–1170.
51.
Ballmer-Weber BK, Hoffmann A, Wuthrich B, et al: Influence of food processing on the allergenicity of celery: DBPCFC with celery spice and cooked celery in patients with celery allergy. Allergy 2002;57:228–235.
52.
Jensen-Jarolim E, Schmid B, Bernier F, et al: Allergologic exploration of germins and germin-like proteins, a new class of plant allergens. Allergy 2002;57:805–810.
53.
Niinimaki A, Hannuksela M, Makinen-Kiljunen S: Skin prick tests and in vitro immunoassays with native spices and spice extracts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;75:280–286.
54.
Wuthrich B, Hofer T: Food allergy: The celery-mugwort-spice syndrome. Association with mango allergy? Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1984;109:981–986.
55.
Ebner C, Hirschwehr R, Bauer L, et al: Identification of allergens in apple, pear, celery, carrot and potato: Cross-reactivity with pollen allergens. Monogr Allergy. Basel, Karger, 1996, vol 32, pp 73–77.
56.
Ebner C, Hirschwehr R, Bauer L, et al: Identification of allergens in fruits and vegetables: IgE cross-reactivities with the important birch pollen allergens Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 (birch profilin). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:962–969.
57.
Wuthrich B, Dietschi R: The celery-carrot-mugwort-condiment syndrome: Skin test and RAST results. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1985;115:258–264.
58.
Dietschi R, Wuthrich B, Johannsson SG: So-called ‘celery-carrot-mugwort-spice syndrome.’ RAST results with new spice discs. Z Hautkr 1987;62:524–531.
59.
Vallier P, Dechamp C, Vial O, Deviller P: A study of allergens in celery with cross-sensitivity to mugwort and birch pollens. Clin Allergy 1988;18:491–500.
60.
Helbling A, Lopez M, Schwartz HJ, Lehrer SB: Reactivity of carrot-specific IgE antibodies with celery, apiaceous spices, and birch pollen. Ann Allergy 1993;70:495–499.
61.
Halmepuro L, Lowenstein H: Immunological investigation of possible structural similarities between pollen antigens and antigens in apple, carrot and celery tuber. Allergy 1985;40:264–272.
62.
van Toorenenbergen AW, Dieges PH: Demonstration of spice-specific IgE in patients with suspected food allergies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;79:108–113.
63.
van Toorenenbergen AW, Dieges PH: Immunoglobulin E antibodies against coriander and other spices. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1985;76:477–481.
64.
Scheurer S, Wangorsch A, Haustein D, Vieths S: Cloning of the minor allergen Api g 4 profilin from celery (Apium graveolens) and its cross-reactivity with birch pollen profilin Bet v 2. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:962–971.
65.
Jensen-Jarolim E, Wiedermann U, Ganglberger E, et al: Allergen mimotopes in food enhance type I allergic reactions in mice. FASEB J 1999;13:1586–1592.
66.
Rodriguez-Perez R, Crespo JF, Rodriguez J, Salcedo G: Profilin is a relevant melon allergen susceptible to pepsin digestion in patients with oral allergy syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:634–639.
67.
Untersmayr E, Schöll I, Swoboda I, et al: Antacid medication inhibits digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy: A fish allergy model in BALB/c mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:616–623.
68.
Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, O’Riordain G, Ahorn H, et al: Molecular characterization of Dau c 1, the Bet v 1 homologous protein from carrot and its cross-reactivity with Bet v 1 and Api g 1. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:840–847.
69.
Stager J, Wuthrich B, Johansson SG: Spice allergy in celery-sensitive patients. Allergy 1991;46:475–478.
70.
Willerroider M, Fuchs H, Ballmer-Weber BK, et al: Cloning and molecular and immunological characterisation of two new food allergens, Cap a 2 and Lyc e 1, profilins from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;131:245–255.
71.
Jensen-Jarolim E, Santner B, Leitner A, et al: Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) express allergens (profilin, pathogenesis-related protein P23 and Bet v 1) depending on the horticultural strain. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;116:103–109.
72.
Gallo R, Cozzani E, Guarrera M: Sensitization to pepper (Capsicum annuum) in a latex-allergic patient. Contact Dermatitis 1997;37:36–37.
73.
Mills EN, Jenkins J, Marigheto N, Belton PS, Gunning AP, Morris VJ: Allergens of the cupin superfamily. Biochem Soc Trans 2002;30:925–929.
74.
Beyer K, Bardina L, Grishina G, Sampson HA: Identification of sesame seed allergens by 2-dimensional proteomics and Edman sequencing: Seed storage proteins as common food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:154–159.
75.
Teuber SS, Jarvis KC, Dandekar AM, Peterson WR, Ansari AA: Identification and cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a vicilin-like proprotein, Jug r 2, from English walnut kernel (Juglans regia), a major food allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:1311–1320.
76.
Teuber SS, Dandekar AM, Peterson WR, Sellers CL: Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 2S albumin seed storage protein precursor from English walnut (Juglans regia), a major food allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:807–814.
77.
Ortolani C, Ispano M, Pastorello E, Bigi A, Ansaloni R: The oral allergy syndrome. Ann Allergy 1988;61:47–52.
78.
Monsalve RI, Gonzalez de la Pena MA, Lopez-Otin C, et al: Detection, isolation and complete amino acid sequence of an aeroallergenic protein from rapeseed flour. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:833–841.
79.
Valenta R, Duchene M, Ebner C, et al: Profilins constitute a novel family of functional plant pan-allergens. J Exp Med 1992;175:377–385.
80.
Wolff N, Cogan U, Admon A, et al: Allergy to sesame in humans is associated primarily with IgE antibody to a 14 kDa 2S albumin precursor. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41:1165–1174.
81.
Van Ree R: Clinical importance of cross-reactivity in food allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;4:235–240.
82.
Niinimaki A, Bjorksten F, Puukka M, Tolonen K, Hannuksela M: Spice allergy: Results of skin prick tests and RAST with spice extracts. Allergy 1989;44:60–65.
83.
Niinimaki A, Hannuksela M: Immediate skin test reactions to spices. Allergy 1981;36:487–493.
84.
Jimenez-Timon A, Rodriguez Trabado A, Hernandez Arbeiza FJ, et al: Anterior rhinomanometry as a diagnostic test in occupational allergy caused by Liliaceae. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2002;30:295–299.
85.
Futrell JM, Rietschel RL: Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis 1993;52:288–290.
86.
Bruynzeel DP, Prevoo RL: Patch tests with some spices. Dermatol Clin 1990;8:85–87.
87.
van Toorenenbergen AW, Huijskes-Heins MI, Leijnse B, Dieges PH: Immunoblot analysis of IgE-binding antigens in spices. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1988;86:117–120.
88.
Sainte-Laudy J, Vallon C, Guerin JC: Bioclinical interest in the assay of leukotrienes in four cases of sensitization to trophallergens. Allerg Immunol (Paris) 1997;29:152;155–156, 159.
89.
Eseverri JL, Cozzo M, Castillo M, Marin A: Round Table: Immunological urticaria mediated by IgE. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1999;27:104–111.
90.
Gonzalez-Gutierrez ML, Sanchez-Fernandez C, Esteban-Lopez MI, Sempere-Ortells JM, Diaz-Alperi P: Allergy to anis. Allergy 2000;55:195–196.
91.
Romano A, Di Fonso M, Giuffreda F, et al: Diagnostic work-up for food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Allergy 1995;50:817–824.
92.
Hefle SL, Jeanniton E, Taylor SL: Development of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of egg residues in processed foodst. J Food Prot 2001;64:1812–1816.
93.
Benito M, Jorro G, Morales C, Pelaez A, Fernandez A: Labiatae allergy: Systemic reactions due to ingestion of oregano and thyme. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;76:416–418.
94.
Farkas J: Perioral dermatitis from marjoram, bay leaf and cinnamon. Contact Dermatitis 1981;7:121.
95.
Hausen BM: A 6-year experience with compositae mix. Am J Contact Dermat 1996;7:94–99.
96.
Lemiere C, Cartier A, Lehrer SB, Malo JL: Occupational asthma caused by aromatic herbs. Allergy 1996;51:647–649.
97.
Dooms-Goossens A, Dubelloy R, Degreef H: Contact and systemic contact-type dermatitis to spices. Dermatol Clin 1990;8:89–93.
98.
Breiteneder H, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, O’Riordain G, et al: Molecular characterization of Api g 1, the major allergen of celery (Apium graveolens), and its immunological and structural relationships to a group of 17-kDa tree pollen allergens. Eur J Biochem 1995;233:484–489.
99.
van Ree R, Voitenko V, van Leeuwen WA, Aalberse RC: Profilin is a cross-reactive allergen in pollen and vegetable foods. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1992;98:97–104.
100.
Vallier P, DeChamp C, Valenta R, Vial O, Deviller P: Purification and characterization of an allergen from celery immunochemically related to an allergen present in several other plant species. Identification as a profilin. Clin Exp Allergy 1992;22:774–782.
101.
Caballero T, Martin-Esteban M: Association between pollen hypersensitivity and edible vegetable allergy: A review. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1998;8:6–16.
102.
Settipane GA: Anaphylactic deaths in asthmatic patients. Allergy Proc 1989;10:271–274.
103.
Rance F, Dutau G: Labial food challenge in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1997;8:41–44.
104.
Roller E, Meller S, Homey B, Ruzicka T, Neumann NJ: Contact dermatitis caused by spinach, hedge mustard and chives. Hautarzt 2003;54:374–375.
105.
Calnan CD: Cinnamon dermatitis from an ointment. Contact Dermatitis 1976;2:167–170.
106.
Cohen DM, Bhattacharyya I: Cinnamon-induced oral erythema multiforme-like sensitivity reaction. J Am Dent Assoc 2000;131:929–934.
107.
De Benito V, Alzaga R: Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from cassia (Chinese cinnamon) as a flavouring agent in coffee. Contact Dermatitis 1999;40:165.
108.
Drake TE, Maibach HI: Allergic contact dermatitis and stomatitis caused by a cinnamic aldehyde-flavored toothpaste. Arch Dermatol 1976;112:202–203.
109.
Goh CL, Ng SK: Bullous contact allergy from cinnamon. Derm Beruf Umwelt 1988;36:186–187.
110.
Hurlimann AF, Wuthrich B: Eating cinnamon in cinnamaldehyde allergy. Hautarzt 1995;46:660–661.
111.
Lamey PJ, Lewis MA, Rees TD, Fowler C, Binnie WH, Forsyth A: Sensitivity reaction to the cinnamonaldehyde component of toothpaste. Br Dent J 1990;168:115–118.
112.
Ludera-Zimoch G: Case of urticaria with immediate local and generalized reaction to cinnamon oil and benzaldehyde. Przegl Dermatol 1981;68:67–70.
113.
Magnusson B, Wilkinson DS: Cinnamic aldehyde in toothpaste. 1. Clinical aspects and patch tests. Contact Dermatitis 1975;1:70–76.
114.
Miller RL, Gould AR, Bernstein ML: Cinnamon-induced stomatitis venenata. Clinical and characteristic histopathologic features. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992;73:708–716.
115.
Nixon R: Cinnamon allergy in a baker. Australas J Dermatol 1995;36:41.
116.
Speer F: Food allergy: The 10 common offenders. Am Fam Physician 1976;13:106–112.
117.
Uragoda CG: Asthma and other symptoms in cinnamon workers. Br J Ind Med 1984;41:224–227.
118.
Warin RP, Smith RJ: Chronic urticaria: Investigations with patch and challenge tests. Contact Dermatitis 1982;8:117–121.
119.
Salam TN, Fowler JF, Jr: Balsam-related systemic contact dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;45:377–381.
120.
Hjorth N: Eczematous allergy to balsams, perfumes and flavouring agents. Dan Med Bull 1961;8:143–144.
121.
Hjorth N: Eczematous allergy to balsams, allied perfumes and flavouring agents, with special reference to balsam of Peru. Acta Derm Venereol 1961;41(Suppl 46):1–216.
122.
Suhonen R, Keskinen H, Bjorksten F, Vaheri E, Zitting A: Allergy to coriander. A case report. Allergy 1979;34:327–330.
123.
de Maat-Bleeker F: Etiology of hypersensitivity reactions following Chinese or Indonesian meals. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1992;136:229–232.
124.
Boxer M, Roberts M, Grammer L: Cumin anaphylaxis: A case report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:722–723.
125.
Monteseirin J, Perez-Formoso JL, Hernandez M, et al: Contact urticaria from dill. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48:275.
126.
Monteseirin J, Perez-Formoso JL, Sanchez-Hernandez MC, et al: Occupational contact dermatitis to dill. Allergy 2002;57:866–867.
127.
Freeman GL: Allergy to fresh dill. Allergy 1999;54:531–532.
128.
Guin JD, Skidmore G: Compositae dermatitis in childhood. Arch Dermatol 1987;123:500–502.
129.
Gluck U: Pollinosis and oral allergy syndrome. HNO 1990;38:188–190.
130.
Gluck U: Neglected allergens. Ther Umsch 1992;49:669–673.
131.
Gral N, Beani JC, Bonnot D, Mariotte AM, Reymond JL, Amblard P: Plasma levels of psoralens after celery ingestion. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1993;120:599–603.
132.
Ottolenghi A, De Chiara A, Arrigoni S, Terracciano L, De Amici M: Diagnosis of food allergy caused by fruit and vegetables in children with atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Med Chir 1995;17:525–530.
133.
Asero R: Relevance of pollen-specific IgE levels to the development of Apiaceae hypersensitivity in patients with birch pollen allergy. Allergy 1997;52:560–564.
134.
Benes J, Prerovsky K, Rehurek L, Kase F: Garlic food allergy with symptoms of Ménière’s disease. Cas Lek Cesk 1966;105:825–827.
135.
Mitchell JC: Contact sensitivity to garlic (Allium). Contact Dermatitis 1980;6:356–357.
136.
Martinescu E: Contact dermatitis caused by Allium sativum. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 1981;85:541–542.
137.
Falleroni AE, Zeiss CR, Levitz D: Occupational asthma secondary to inhalation of garlic dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981;68:156–160.
138.
Lybarger JA, Gallagher JS, Pulver DW, Litwin A, Brooks S, Bernstein IL: Occupational asthma induced by inhalation and ingestion of garlic. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;69:448–454.
139.
Couturier P, Bousquet J: Occupational allergy secondary inhalation of garlic dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;70:145.
140.
Molina C, Lachaussée R, Jeanneret A, Petit R, Grouffal C: A garlic story. Presse Méd 1983;12:1941.
141.
Haenen JM: The garlic story. Presse Méd 1984;13:745.
142.
Lautier R, Wendt V: Contact allergy to Alliaceae. Case report and literature review. Derm Beruf Umwelt 1985;33:213–215.
143.
Bojs G, Svensson A: Contact allergy to garlic used for wound healing. Contact Dermatitis 1988;18:179–181.
144.
Lee TY, Lam TH: Contact dermatitis due to topical treatment with garlic in Hong Kong. Contact Dermatitis 1991;24:193–196.
145.
Miyazawa K, Ito M, Ohsaki K: An equine case of urticaria associated with dry garlic feeding. J Vet Med Sci 1991;53:747–748.
146.
McFadden JP, White IR, Rycroft RJ: Allergic contact dermatitis from garlic. Contact Dermatitis 1992;27:333–334.
147.
Burden AD, Wilkinson SM, Beck MH, Chalmers RJ: Garlic-induced systemic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 1994;30:299–300.
148.
Armentia A, Vega JM: Can inhalation of garlic dust cause asthma? Allergy 1996;51:137–138.
149.
Delaney TA, Donnelly AM: Garlic dermatitis. Australas J Dermatol 1996;37:109–110.
150.
Anibarro B, Fontela JL, De La Hoz F: Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:734–738.
151.
Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Antoniotti PL, Falagiani P: A case of garlic allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:427–428.
152.
Jappe U, Bonnekoh B, Hausen BM, Gollnick H: Garlic-related dermatoses: Case report and review of the literature. Am J Contact Dermat 1999;10:37–39.
153.
Perez-Pimiento AJ, Moneo I, Santaolalla M, de Paz S, Fernandez-Parra B, Dominguez-Lazaro AR: Anaphylactic reaction to young garlic. Allergy 1999;54:626–629.
154.
Seuri M, Taivanen A, Ruoppi P, Tukiainen H: Three cases of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by garlic. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:1011–1014.
155.
Kyo E, Uda N, Kasuga S, Itakura Y: Immunomodulatory effects of aged garlic extract. J Nutr 2001;131:1075S–1079S.
156.
Pires G, Pargana E, Loureiro V, Almeida MM, Pinto JR: Allergy to garlic. Allergy 2002;57:957–958.
157.
Hughes TM, Varma S, Stone NM: Occupational contact dermatitis from a garlic and herb mixture. Contact Dermatitis 2002;47:48.
158.
Ghazanfari T, Hassan ZM, Ebrahimi M: Immunomodulatory activity of a protein isolated from garlic extract on delayed type hypersensitivity. Int Immunopharmacol 2002;2:1541–1549.
159.
Kao SH, Hsu CH, Su SN, Hor WT, Chang TW, Chow LP: Identification and immunologic characterization of an allergen, alliin lyase, from garlic (Allium sativum). J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:161–168.
160.
Bassioukas K, Orton D, Cerio R: Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from garlic with concurrent type I allergy. Contact Dermatitis 2004;50:39–41.
161.
Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, Kirk-Smith M: Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema. Phytother Res 2000;14:452–456.
162.
Maddocks-Jennings W: Critical incident: idiosyncratic allergic reactions to essential oils. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 2004;10:58–60.
163.
Marquez AH: An unusual allergic reaction to nitrogen mustard. Am Pract Dig Treat 1961;12:271–274.
164.
Maguire HC, Jr: Induction of delayed hypersensitivity to nitrogen mustard in the guinea-pig. Br J Dermatol 1974;91:21–26.
165.
Grunnet E: Contact urticaria and anaphylactoid reaction induced by topical application of nitrogen mustard. Br J Dermatol 1976;94:101–103.
166.
Panconesi E, Sertoli A, Fabbri P, Giorgini S, Spallanzani P: Anaphylactic shock from mustard after ingestion of pizza. Contact Dermatitis 1980;6:294–295.
167.
Meding B: Immediate hypersensitivity to mustard and rape. Contact Dermatitis 1985;13:121–122.
168.
Widstrom L, Johansson SG: IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to mustard. Acta Derm Venereol 1986;66:70–71.
169.
Dannaker CJ, White IR: Cutaneous allergy to mustard in a salad maker. Contact Dermatitis 1987;16:212–214.
170.
Blaiss MS, McCants ML, Lehrer SB: Anaphylaxis to cabbage: Detection of allergens. Ann Allergy 1987;58:248–250.
171.
Leanizbarrutia I, Munoz D, Fernandez de Corres L: Cutaneous allergy to mustard. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17:262–263.
172.
Kavli G, Moseng D: Contact urticaria from mustard in fish-stick production. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17:153–155.
173.
Kohl PK, Frosch PJ: Irritant contact dermatitis induced by a mustard compress. Contact Dermatitis 1990;23:189–190.
174.
Gonzalez de la Pena MA, Menendez-Arias L, Monsalve RI, Rodriguez R: Isolation and characterization of a major allergen from oriental mustard seeds, BrajI. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1991;96:263–270.
175.
Vidal C, Diaz C, Saez A, Rodriguez M, Iglesias A: Anaphylaxis to mustard. Postgrad Med J 1991;67:404.
176.
Momeni AZ, Enshaeih S, Meghdadi M, Amindjavaheri M: Skin manifestations of mustard gas. A clinical study of 535 patients exposed to mustard gas. Arch Dermatol 1992;128:775–780.
177.
Kanny G, Fremont S, Talhouarne G, Nicolas JP, Moneret-Vautrin DA: Anaphylaxis to mustard as a masked allergen in ‘chicken dips’. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;75:340–342.
178.
Caballero T, San-Martin MS, Padial MA, et al: Clinical characteristics of patients with mustard hypersensitivity. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;89:166–171.
179.
Rance F: Mustard allergy as a new food allergy. Allergy 2003;58:287–288.
180.
Blamoutier P: Allergy to mustard: Apropos of a privileged case. Rev Fr Allergol 1965;19:46–47.
181.
Morisset M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Maadi F, et al: Prospective study of mustard allergy: first study with double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge trials (24 cases). Allergy 2003;58:295–299.
182.
Rance F, Abbal M, Dutau G: Mustard allergy in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2001;suppl 23:44–45.
183.
Rance F, Dutau G, Abbal M: Mustard allergy in children. Allergy 2000;55:496–500.
184.
Allergy to mace. JAMA 1977;237:1201.
185.
Frazier CA: Contact allergy to mace. JAMA 1976;236:2526.
186.
Van Hecke E: Contact allergy to onion. Contact Dermatitis 1977;3:167–168.
187.
Valdivieso R, Subiza J, Varela-Losada S, et al: Bronchial asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact dermatitis caused by onion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:928–930.
188.
Gastaminza G, Quirce S, Torres M, et al: Pickled onion-induced asthma: A model of sulfite-sensitive asthma? Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25:698–703.
189.
Kawane H: Bronchial asthma caused by onion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:568.
190.
Singhal V, Reddy BS: Common contact sensitizers in Delhi. J Dermatol 2000;27:440–445.
191.
Sanchez-Hernandez MC, Hernandez M, Delgado J, et al: Allergenic cross-reactivity in the Liliaceae family. Allergy 2000;55:297–299.
192.
Arena A, Cislaghi C, Falagiani P: Anaphylactic reaction to the ingestion of raw onion. A case report. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2000;28:287–289.
193.
Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S: A case of onion allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:309–310.
194.
Perez-Calderon R, Gonzalo-Garijo MA, Fernandez de Soria R: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis to onion. Allergy 2002;57:752–753.
195.
Hjorth N, Roed-Petersen J: Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers. Contact Dermatitis 1976;2:28–42.
196.
Winek CL, Markie DC, Shanor SP: Pepper sauce toxicity. Drug Chem Toxicol 1982;5:89–113.
197.
Vermeulen AM, Groenewoud GC, de Jong NW, de Groot H, Gerth van Wijk R, van Toorenenbergen AW: Primary sensitization to sweet bell pepper pollen in greenhouse workers with occupational allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:1439–1442.
198.
Spuzic V, Spuzic I, Djordjevic S, Ivkovic L, Ljalevic J, Zivkovic M: The role of paprika in the appearance of allergic manifestations. Acta Allergol 1962;17:516–520.
199.
Rogov VD: Toxicoderma caused by sweet red pepper. Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1985:53–54.
200.
Groenewoud GC, de Jong NW, van Oorschot-van Nes AJ, et al: Prevalence of occupational allergy to bell pepper pollen in greenhouses in the Netherlands. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32:434–440.
201.
van Toorenenbergen AW, Waanders J, Gerth Van Wijk R, Vermeulen AM: Immunoblot analysis of IgE-binding antigens in paprika and tomato pollen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;122:246–250.
202.
Gallo R, Roncarolo D, Mistrello G: Cross-reactivity between latex and sweet pepper due to prohevein. Allergy 1998;53:1007–1008.
203.
Hannuksela M, Lahti A: Immediate reactions to fruits and vegetables. Contact Dermatitis 1977;3:79–84.
204.
Kauppinen K, Kousa M, Reunala T: Aromatic plants – a cause of severe attacks of angio-edema and urticaria. Contact Dermatitis 1980;6:251–254.
205.
Dechamp C, Deviller P: Rules concerning allergy to celery (and other Umbellifera). Allerg Immunol (Paris) 1987;19:112–114, 116.
206.
Vallet G: Allergy to Market Garden Plants: Artichoke, Celery, Parsley. Concours Med 1964;86:3603–3606.
207.
Maillard H, Drouet M, Sabbah A: Allergy associated with pepper and latex: New cross-reaction? Allerg Immunol (Paris) 1995;27:292–294.
208.
Tucke J, Posch A, Baur X, Rieger C, Raulf-Heimsoth M: Latex type I sensitization and allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. Evaluation of cross-reactivity to some foods. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1999;10:160–167.
209.
Dikensoy O, Bayram NG, Filiz A: Severe asthma attack in a patient with premenstrual asthma: Hot pepper is the possible trigger. Respiration 2001;68:227.
210.
Mueller RS, Bettenay SV, Tideman L: Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1,000 intradermal skin tests. Aust Vet J 2000;78:392–399.
211.
Andersen KE: Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4:195–198.
212.
Mooller NE, Skov PS, Norn S: Allergic and pseudo-allergic reactions caused by penicillins, cocoa and peppermint additives in penicillin factory workers examined by basophil histamine release. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 1984;55:139–144.
213.
Wilkinson SM, Beck MH: Allergic contact dermatitis from menthol in peppermint. Contact Dermatitis 1994;30:42–43.
214.
Rogers SN, Pahor AL: A form of stomatitis induced by excessive peppermint consumption. Dent Update 1995;22:36–37.
215.
Dooms-Goossens A, Degreef H, Holvoet C, Maertens M: Turpentine-induced hypersensitivity to peppermint oil. Contact Dermatitis 1977;3:304–308.
216.
Richter J, Susicky P: Latex allergy. Cesk Slov Oftalmol 2000;56:129–131.
217.
Kutting B, Brehler R: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Allergy 2000;55:585–586.
218.
Frantzen B, Brocker EB, Trautmann A: Immediate-type allergy caused by poppy seed. Allergy 2000;55:97–98.
219.
Kalyoncu AF, Stalenheim G: Allergy to poppy seed. Allergy 1993;48:295.
220.
Crivellaro M, Bonadonna P, Dama A, et al: Severe systemic reactions caused by poppy seed. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1999;9:58–59.
221.
Braun W, Kovary PM: Poppy seed allergy. Z Hautkr 1988;63:344.
222.
Fernandez L, Duque S, Sanchez I, Quinones D, Rodriguez F, Garcia-Abujeta JL: Allergic contact dermatitis from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Contact Dermatitis 1997;37:248–249.
223.
Lucas CD, Hallagan JB, Taylor SL: The role of natural color additives in food allergy. Adv Food Nutr Res 2001;43:195–216.
224.
Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Schacter EN, Mustajbegovic J: Respiratory function and immunologic status in workers processing dried fruits and teas. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;77:417–422.
225.
Katial RK, Lin FL, Stafford WW, Ledoux RA, Westley CR, Weber RW: Mugwort and sage (Artemisia) pollen cross-reactivity: ELISA inhibition and immunoblot evaluation. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997;79:340–346.
226.
Golec M, Skorska C, Mackiewicz B, Dutkiewicz J: Immunologic reactivity to work-related airborne allergens in people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs. Ann Agric Environ Med 2004;11:121–127.
227.
Steurich F: Allergy to sesame seeds. Pneumologie 1989;43:710–714.
228.
Kagi M, Wuthrich B: Falafel-burger anaphylaxis due to sesame seed allergy. Lancet 1991;338:582.
229.
Chiu JT, Haydik IB: Sesame seed oil anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991;88:414–415.
230.
Keskinen H, Ostman P, Vaheri E, et al: A case of occupational asthma, rhinitis and urticaria due to sesame seed. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21:623–624.
231.
James C, Williams-Akita A, Rao YA, Chiarmonte LT, Scheider AT: Sesame seed anaphylaxis. N Y State J Med 1991;91:457–458.
232.
Kagi MK, Wuthrich B: Falafel burger anaphylaxis due to sesame seed allergy. Ann Allergy 1993;71:127–129.
233.
Eberlein-Konig B, Rueff F, Przybilla B: Generalized urticaria caused by sesame seeds with negative prick test results and without demonstrable specific IgE antibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:560–561.
234.
Alday E, Curiel G, Lopez-Gil MJ, Carreno D, Moneo I: Occupational hypersensitivity to sesame seeds. Allergy 1996;51:69–70.
235.
Perkins MS: Peanut and nut allergy. Sesame allergy is also a problem. BMJ 1996;313:300.
236.
Sporik R, Hill D: Allergy to peanut, nuts, and sesame seed in Australian children. BMJ 1996;313:1477–1478.
237.
Kolopp-Sarda MN, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Gobert B, et al: Specific humoral immune responses in 12 cases of food sensitization to sesame seed. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:1285–1291.
238.
Stern A, Wuthrich B: Non-IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to sesame. Allergy 1998;53:325–326.
239.
Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Antoniotti PL, Falagiani P: A case of sesame seed-induced anaphylaxis. Allergy 1999;54:526–527.
240.
Pajno GB, Passalacqua G, Magazzu G, Barberio G, Vita D, Canonica GW: Anaphylaxis to sesame. Allergy 2000;55:199–201.
241.
Senti G, Ballmer-Weber BK, Wuthrich B: Nuts, seeds and grains from an allergist’s point of view. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 2000;130:1795–1804.
242.
Levy Y, Danon YL: Allergy to sesame seed in infants. Allergy 2001;56:193–194.
243.
Fremont S, Zitouni N, Kanny G, et al: Allergenicity of some isoforms of white sesame proteins. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32:1211–1215.
244.
Morisset M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Kanny G, et al: Thresholds of clinical reactivity to milk, egg, peanut and sesame in immunoglobulin E-dependent allergies: evaluation by double-blind or single-blind placebo-controlled oral challenges. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:1046–1051.
245.
Uvitsky IH: Sensitivity to sesame seed. J Allergy 1951;22:377–378.
246.
Pastorello EA, Varin E, Farioli L, et al: The major allergen of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) is a 2S albumin. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2001;756:85–93.
247.
Rudzki E, Grzywa Z, Krajewska D, Kozlowska A, Czerwinska-Dihm I: New contact allergens and allergen sources. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 1978;26:735–738.
248.
Kurzen M, Bayerl C, Goerdt S: Occupational allergy to mugwort. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2003;1:285.
249.
Mackiewicz B, Skorska C, Dutkiewicz J, et al: Allergic alveolitis due to herb dust exposure. Ann Agric Environ Med 1999;6:167–170.
250.
Olive-Perez A, Granel Tena C: Asthma caused by culinary spices. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1992;20:85–86.
251.
Hata M, Sasaki E, Ota M, et al: Allergic contact dermatitis from curcumin (turmeric). Contact Dermatitis 1997;36:107–108.
252.
Li C, Li L, Luo J, Huang N: Effect of turmeric volatile oil on the respiratory tract. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1998;23:624–625, inside back cover.
253.
Lamb SR, Wilkinson SM: Contact allergy to tetrahydrocurcumin. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48:227.
254.
Reus KE, Houben GF, Stam M, Dubois AE: Food additives as a cause of medical symptoms: Relationship shown between sulfites and asthma and anaphylaxis; results of a literature review. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2000;144:1836–1839.
255.
Beyer AV, Gall H, Peter RU: Immediate-type hypersensitivity to vanilla. Allergologie 1999;22:433–436.
256.
Menendez-Arias L, Moneo I, Dominguez J, Rodriguez R: Primary structure of the major allergen of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed, Sin a I. Eur J Biochem 1988;177:159–166.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.