Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune disease which is characterized by a strong genetic association (HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8), gluten as nutritional etiological factor, and the enzyme tissue transglutaminase as endomysial autoantigen. Patients develop highly predictive IgA autoantibodies to tTG. Certain gluten peptides are presented by the disease-associated HLA-DQ2/DQ8 molecules leading to stimulation of gluten-specific T cells. This immune response which is driven in the lamina propria causes the mucosal transformation characteristic for celiac disease. Increased intestinal expression of tTG in patients with CD appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of CD. Thus, modification of gluten peptides by tTG, especially deamidation of certain glutamine residues, can enhance their binding to HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 and potentiate T cell stimulation. Furthermore, tTG-catalyzed cross-linking and consequent haptenization of gluten with extracellular matrix proteins allows for storage and extended availability of gluten in the mucosa. New therapeutic approaches aim at proteolytic destruction of immunodominant gliadin peptides that are resistant to intestinal enzymes by bacterial prolyl endopeptidases, the inhibition of tTG activity with highly specific enzyme inhibitors or at HLA-DQ2/DQ8 blocking peptide analogues.