Background: In various cells including monocytes the cytokine interferon-γ as well as lipopolysaccharide induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase which degrades tryptophan to form L-kynurenine. We addressed the question of whether the exposure of human peripheral mononuclear cells to superantigens derived from streptococci is associated with tryptophan degradation in vitro. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to streptococcal erythrogenic toxins A and B and a streptococcal-derived mitogen named BX. In addition, the myelomonocytic cell line THP-1 was treated with these toxin preparations. Results: In peripheral blood mononuclear cells all three toxins induced tryptophan degradation. In parallel, production of interferon-γ was found, and the tryptophan degradation could be blocked by antihuman interferon-γ antibodies. Tryptophan degradation was not induced when the human myelocytoma cell line THP-1 was stimulated with these toxins, but there was a costimulatoty effect to interferon-γ. Conclusions: In peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture streptococcal erythrogenic toxins are able to stimulate tryptophan degradation in humans via the induction of interferon-γ production. There seems to be no direct effect on myelomonocytic THP-1 cells. Because some of the degradation products of tryptophan, such as quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, are toxic, super-antigen-driven degradation of tryptophan may play a role for example in the development of the toxic-shock-like syndrome associated with severe group A streptococcal infections.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.