Introduction: NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1) encodes a transcription factor, NKX2-1, that is expressed in the thyroid gland, lung, and brain. Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) encodes an enzyme which generates hydrogen peroxide and is involved in the thyroid hormone synthesis. Cases of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with dyshormonogenesis showing two or more genetic variants are increasingly reported. We describe the first case of transient dyshormonogenesis who had experimentally verified a loss-of-function NKX2-1 variant and DUOX2 variants. Case Presentation: The proband was a 15-year-old female patient with CH who was diagnosed in the frame of newborn screening for CH. She had a mildly elevated serum TSH level (14.56 mU/L), a low free thyroxine level (0.87 ng/dL), and a high thyroglobulin (Tg) level (>800 ng/mL). Ultrasonography revealed goiter. She was followed clinically without levothyroxine treatment and showed normal growth and development. She had slightly high Tg levels throughout the clinical course. Next-generation sequencing-based genetic analysis revealed that the patient was heterozygous for an NKX2-1 variant (p.Ile228Ser), a nonsense DUOX2 variant (p.[Lys530*;His678Arg]), and a functional DUOX2 polymorphism (p.His678Arg). NKX2-1 p.Ile228Ser showed about 50% reduced residual activity on the Tg promoter. Conclusion: A partial loss-of-function NKX2-1 variant with a monoallelic nonsense DUOX2 variant and a DUOX2 functional polymorphism can cause transient CH with high serum Tg levels.

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