Introduction: Isolated SHOX haploinsufficiency is a common monogenic cause of short stature. Few studies compare untreated and rhGH-treated patients up to adult height (AH). Our study highlights a growth pattern from childhood to AH in patients with SHOX haploinsufficiency and analyzes the real-world effectiveness of rhGH alone or plus GnRH analog (GnRHa). Methods: Forty-seven patients (18 untreated and 29 rhGH-treated) with SHOX haploinsufficiency were included in a longitudinal retrospective study. Adult height was attained in 13 untreated and 18 rhGH-treated (rhGH alone [n = 8] or plus GnRHa [n = 10]) patients. Results: The untreated group decreased height SDS from baseline to AH (−0.8 [−1.1; −0.4]), with an increase in the prevalence of short stature from 31% to 77%. Conversely, the rhGH-treated group had an improvement in height SDS from baseline to AH (0.6 [0.2; 0.6]; p < 0.001), with a reduction in the prevalence of short stature (from 61% to 28%). AH in the rhGH-treated patients was 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller than in untreated ones. Regarding the use of GnRHa, the subgroups (rhGH alone or plus GnRHa) attained similar AH, despite the higher prevalence of pubertal patients and worse AH prediction at the start of rhGH treatment in patients who used combined therapy. Conclusion: The use of rhGH treatment improves AH in patients with SHOX haploinsufficiency, preventing the loss of height potential during puberty. In peripubertal patients, the addition of GnRHa to rhGH allows AH attainment similar to the AH of patients who start rhGH alone in the prepubertal age.

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