Objectives: Biallelic pathogenic variants in CYPA24A1 and SLC34A1 are causes of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Pathogenic variants in both may also give rise to hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis without previous hypercalcemia (renal group). Our objective was to examine the frequency of CYP24A1 or SLC34A1 variants in children with early hypercalcemia or late-onset hypercalciuria. Method: Forty-one children from 7 centers across Canada were recruited. Local investigations were undertaken. The serum was evaluated by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry for the ratio of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, (25-OH-D3:24,25-(OH)2D3), an elevation pathognomonic for the loss of function of the CYP24A1 enzyme. Mutational analyses were undertaken. Family cascade screening was performed if pathogenic variants were detected in probands. Results: Twenty-nine children had early-onset hypercalcemia; none had elevated 25-OH-D3:24,25-(OH)2D3 or variants. Interestingly, 2 of 12 in the renal group had elevated 25-OH-D3:24,25-(OH)2D3 and presented as preadolescents. In case 1, cascade testing revealed a sibling and parent with asymptomatic pathogenic variants in CYP24A1. Four CYP24A1 pathogenic variants were identified in these 2 probands: 3 have been described in European populations, and 1 is a rare variant in exon 7 (c931delC) that is likely pathogenic. No SLC34A1 pathogenic variants were detected. Conclusion: In Canada, pathogenic variants in CYP24A1 appear to manifest with late-onset hypercalciuria and its sequelae. The 25-OH-D3:24,25-(OH)2D3 ratio is an excellent tool for screening for biallelic pathogenic variants in CYP24A1. We confirm that cascade testing is important for these variants.

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