Background: During gestation, the primordial thymus migrates from the pharynx to the anterior mediastinum, thus thymic tissue can remain at any point along this path. Intrathyroidal thymic remnants are rare, and their sonographic patterns have only recently been described. This retrospective study presents the sonographic appearance of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus and emphasizes the role of sonography in order to avoid misdiagnosis. Methods: The population consisted of 42 children, 3.5-14 years old, who had a thyroid sonogram performed due to a positive family history or symptoms indicative of thyroid disease, and ectopic intrathyroidal thymus was recognized. Results: In all patients, the same pattern was revealed: a fusiform intrathyroidal lesion, with no mass effect, homogeneously hypoechoic, with diffuse bright internal echoes. The similarity to the characteristic sonographic pattern of the normal mediastinal thymus was crucial for the diagnosis of ectopic intrathyroidal thymic tissue. In 8 cases, a normal elongated thymus was found connected to the thyroid with an accessory lobe embedded in the lower thyroid pole. The above sonographic appearances mimicked a thyroid nodule. Conclusions: Awareness of the sonographic patterns of the ectopic intrathyroidal thymus is mandatory to avoid misdiagnosis. In most cases, further investigation is unnecessary, but sonographic follow-up should be recommended.

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