Introduction: Gut and adipose tissue hormones play an important role in energy balance control, particularly through the regulation at either short- or long-term food intake after bariatric surgery. Case: A 15-year-old obese female (BMI 42.2) who was unresponsive to medical treatment underwent gastroplication. Hunger hormone levels (leptin, ghrelin and insulin), weight loss and eating behavior were monitored at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Results: Weight loss was obtained, progressively achieving a loss of 45.6 kg 1 year after surgery. A strong reduction in insulin concentration and insulin resistance was documented. At 3 months after the operation, a surprising leptin level drop was observed. During the following months a progressive increase in leptin levels and leptin/kg of fat mass were documented. Fasting ghrelin levels increased in the first 3 months, then fell over the next 6 months. Up to 6 months after gastroplication, we observed a less marked drop in plasma ghrelin after meal ingestion, while the values after 1 year showed a substantial fall in the postprandial period despite a further fasting ghrelin increased level. Early achievement of satiety was found. Conclusion: Hunger hormones level changes seem to be involved in weight loss and eating behavior after gastroplication in adolescents.