For surgery in congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), a distinct strategy and technique is required for focal, diffuse and atypical types. In focal CHI, a confined, localized and parenchyma-sparing resection which is guided by the PET-CT is always indicated in order to cure the patient. In diffuse CHI, however, the results of surgical therapy are unpredictable and cure is an exception. Therefore, a strong tendency exists nowadays that medical therapy should be preferred in diffuse CHI. In atypical CHI the situation is more complex: if the focal lesion or the segmental mosaic are not too extensive, cure by resection should be possible. But care must be taken in atypical cases not to resect too much of the gland in order not to induce diabetes.

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