Androgen treatment represents a main aspect of clinical management of boys with hypogonadism from adolescence onwards. Androgen replacement therapy is required to induce secondary sexual characteristics and adult male body composition, to optimize the accrual of bone mineral content and muscle mass, and to promote physical and social well-being. Testosterone is the only sex steroid hormone suitable for treatment in hypogonadal boys as it fulfils all the physiological requirements. However, the optimal regimens for androgen replacement therapy during adolescence remain to be defined. The new testosterone formulations (patch, gel, transbuccal and long-acting) have been designed for use in adults and the available dosages are probably too high to induce and manage puberty in adolescents properly. The aim of this paper is to provide practical indications for androgen treatment in male adolescents with hypogonadism.

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