Background: Late presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a 46,XX disorder of sex development due to 11-β hydroxylase deficiency is uncommon. Such a case raises issues regarding appropriate investigation and management. Case History: A 5-year-old boy who had recently moved to the United Kingdom presented at the endocrinology clinic with recurrent abdominal pain. He was normotensive and had a history of ambiguous genitalia since birth, a relatively small penis, bilateral cryptorchidism and pubic hair. A systematic workup revealed low anti-Mullerian hormone levels for age and sex and elevated serum testosterone, androstenedione and deoxycortisol levels. A urinary steroid profile confirmed a diagnosis of 11-β hydroxylase deficiency. The child’s karyotype was 46,XX. Further genetic analysis revealed a compound heterozygote mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Ultrasound scan showed evidence of Mullerian structures and accumulation of menstrual blood in the vagina (haematocolpos). Following discussion at a multidisciplinary clinic, the patient did not undergo sex reassignment and subsequently proceeded to surgery for removal of the Mullerian structures. Conclusions: This case emphasizes the importance of a systematic approach to investigation of older children presenting with apparent male undermasculinisation. It also raises important issues about gender reassignment in mid-childhood and the indications for removal of Mullerian organs in a 46,XX boy.

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