Childhood celiac disease may lead to a failure of statural growth. After institution of a gluten-free diet most patients exhibit catch-up growth. Catch-up growth is a remarkable phenomenon characterized by a supranormal height velocity. One of the hypothetical mechanisms of catch-up growth is that an increased activity of the somatotrophic axis is involved. In order to provide further insight in the physiology of catch-up growth, auxological and endocrine changes were prospectively studied in 28 children with newly diagnosed celiac disease. The results demonstrate a malnutrition-like state of the somatotrophic axis at the time of diagnosis and a rapid recovery of this axis towards normal functioning after institution of the gluten-free diet. Although several correlations between these endocrine alterations and auxological parameters were detected, it is questionable whether the endocrine changes are the driving force behind catch-up growth.

1.
Young WF, Pringle EM: 110 children with celiac disease, 1950–1969. Arch Dis Child 1971;46:421–436.
2.
Rey J, Rey F, Jos J, Amusquivar Lora S: Etude de la croissance dans 50 cas de maladie coeliaque de l’enfant. Arch Franc Pédiatr 1971;28:37–47.
3.
Exner G, Sacher M, Shmerling D, Prader A: Growth retardation and bone mineral status in children with coeliac disease recognized after the age of 3 years. Helv Paediatr Acta 1978;33:497–507.
4.
De Luca F, Astori M, Pandullo E, Sferlazzas C, Arrigo T, Sindoni A, Magazzu G: Effects of a gluten-free diet on catch-up growth and height prognosis in coeliac children with growth retardation recognized after the age of 5 years. Eur J Pediatr 1988;147:188–191.
5.
Shmerling D, Prader A, Zachmann M: The effect of dietary treatment on growth in celiac disease; in McCance RA, Widdowson EM (eds): Calorie Deficiencies and Protein Deficiencies. London, Churchill, 1968, pp 159–161.
6.
Barr D, Shmerling D, Prader A: Catch-up growth in malnutrition studied in celiac disease after institution of gluten-free diet. Pediatr Res 1972;6:521–527.
7.
Damen GM, Boersma B, Wit JM, Heymans HSA: Catch-up growth in 60 prepubertal children with celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1994;19:394–400.
8.
Williams JPG, Tanner JM, Hughes PCR: Catch-up growth in male rats after growth retardation during the suckling period. Pediatr Res 1974;8:149–156.
9.
Williams JPG: Catch-up growth. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1981;65(suppl):89–101.
10.
Prader A, Tanner JM, Von Harnack GA: Catch-up growth following illness or starvation. An example of developmental canalization in man. J Pediatr 1963;62:646–659.
11.
Tanner JM: Regulation of growth in size from mammals. Nature 1963;199:845–850.
12.
Federico G, Favilli T, Cinquanta L, Ughi C, Saggese G: Effect of celiac disease and gluten-free diet on growth hormone-binding protein, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins. Horm Res 1997;48:108–114.
13.
Frederiks RJ, van Buuren E, Burgmeijer RJ, Meulmeester JF, Beuker RJ, Brugman E, Roede MJ, Verloove-Vanhorick SP, Wit JM: Continuing positive secular growth change in The Netherlands 1955–1997. Pediatr Res 2000;47:316–323.
14.
Cole TJ: The LMS method for constructing normalized growth standards. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:45–60.
15.
Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Cameron N, Marshall WA, Healy MJR, Goldstein H: Assessment of Skeletal Maturity and Prediction of Adult Height (TW2 Method), ed 2. London, Academic Press, 1983.
16.
Kratzsch J, Schreiber G, Selisko T, Keller E, Pflaum CD, Strasburger CJ: Measurement of serum exon 3-retaining growth hormone-binding protein in children and adolescents by RIA. Horm Res 1997;48:252–257.
17.
Blum WF, Horn N, Kratzsch J, Jorgensen OL, Juul A, Teale D, Mohnike K, Ranke MB: Clinical studies of IGFBP-2 by radioimmunoassay. Growth Regul 1993;3:100–104.
18.
Silbergeld A, Litwin A, Bruchis S, Varsano I, Laron Z: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in healthy children, adolescents and adults as determined by a radioimmunoassay specific for the synthetic 53–70 peptide region. Clin Endocrinol 1986;25:67–74.
19.
Rikken B, Van Doorn J, Ringeling AM, Van den Brande JL, Massa GG, Wit JM: Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2 and IGF-binding protein-3 in the evaluation of childhood growth hormone deficiency. Horm Res 1998;50:166–176.
20.
Van Buul-Offers S, Van Kleffens M, Koster J, Lindenbergh-Kortleve DJ, Gresnigt M, Drop SLS: Human insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-1 inhibits IGF-1-stimulated body growth but stimulates growth of the kidney in Snell dwarf mice. Endocrinology 2000;141:1493–1499.
21.
De Vries BBA, Robinson H, Stolte I, Tjon Pian CV, Dijkstra PF, Doorn JV, Halley DJJ, Oostra BA, Turner G, Niemeijer MF: General overgrowth in the fragile X syndrome: Variability in the phenotypic expression of the FMR1 gene mutation. J Med Genet 1995;32:764–769.
22.
Soliman AT, Hassan A, Aref MK, Hintz RL, Rosenfeld RG, Rogol AD: Serum insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 concentrations and growth hormone and insulin responses to arginine infusion in children with protein-energy malnutrition before and after nutritional rehabilitation. Pediatr Res 1986;20:1122–1130.
23.
Hintz RL, Suskind R, Amatayakul K, Thanangkul O, Olson R: Plasma somatomedin and growth hormone values in children with protein-calorie malnutrition. J Pediatr 1978;92:153–156.
24.
Stanhope R, Adlard P, Hamill G, Jones J, Skuse D, Preece MA: Physiological growth hormone secretion during the recovery from psychosocial dwarfism: A case report. Clin Endocrinol 1988;28:335–339.
25.
Albanese A, Hamill G, Jones J, Skuse D, Matthews DR, Stanhope R: Reversibility of physiological growth hormone secretion in children with psychosocial dwarfism. Clin Endocrinol 1994;40:687–692.
26.
Van den Brande JL: Catch-up growth. Possible mechanisms. Acta Endocrinol Suppl 1986;279:13–23.
27.
Powell GF, Hopwood NJ, Barratt ES: Growth hormone studies before and during catch-up growth in a child with emotional deprivation and short stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1973;37:674–679.
28.
Powell GF, Brasel JA, Raiti S, Blizzard RM: Emotional deprivation and growth retardation simulating idiopathic hypopituitarism. II. Endocrinologic evaluation of the syndrome. N Engl J Med 1967;276:1279–1283.
29.
Vanderschueren Lodeweyckx M, Wolter R, Molla A, Eggermont E, Ecckels R: Plasma growth hormone in coeliac disease. Helv Paediatr Acta 1973;28:349–357.
30.
Leung DW, Spencer SA, Cachianes G, Hammonds RG, Collins C, Henzel WJ, Barnard R, Waters MJ, Wood WI: Growth hormone receptor and serum binding protein: Purification, cloning and expression. Nature 1987;330:537–543.
31.
Attie KM, Carlsson LMS, Rundle AC, Sherman BM: Evidence for partial growth hormone insensitivity among patients with idiopathic short stature. J Pediatr 1995;127:244–250.
32.
Baumann G, Shaw MA, Winter RJ: Absence of the plasma growth hormone-binding protein in Laron-type dwarfism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:814–816.
33.
Maes M, Amand Y, Underwood LE, Maiter D, Ketelslegers JM: Decreased serum insulin-like growth factor 1 response to growth hormone in hypophysectomized rats fed a low protein diet: evidence for a postreceptor defect. Acta Endocrinol Copenh 1988;117:320–326.
34.
Ketelslegers JM, Maiter D, Maes M, Underwood LE, Thissen JP: Nutritional regulation of the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins. Horm Res 1996;45:252–257.
35.
Thissen JP, Ketelslegers JM, Underwood LE: Nutritional regulation of the insulin-like growth factors. Endocr Rev 1994;15:80–101.
36.
Straus DS: Nutritional regulation of hormones and growth factors that control mammalian growth. FASEB J 1994;8:6–12.
37.
Eichler I, Frisch H, Granditsch G: Growth failure and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) in childhood celiac disease. Klin Wochenschr 1991;69:825–829.
38.
Lecornu M, David L, François R: Low serum somatomedin activity in celiac disease. Helv Paediatr Acta 1978;33:509–516.
39.
Weile B, Krasilnikoff PA, Giwercman A, Skakkebaek NE: Insulin-like growth factor-1 in celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1994;19:391–393.
40.
Kabir I, Butler T, Underwood LE, Rahman MM: Effects of a protein-rich diet during convalescence from shigellosis on catch-up growth, serum proteins and insulin-like growth factor-1. Pediatr Res 1992;32:689–692.
41.
Clemmons DR, Underwood LE, Dickerson RN: Use of plasma somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor 1 measurements to monitor the response to nutritional repletion in malnourished patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:191–198.
42.
Pucilowska JB, Davenport ML, Kabir I, Clemmons DR, Thissen JP, Butler T, Underwood LE: The effect of dietary protein supplementation on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins in children with shigellosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;77:1516–1521.
43.
Suikkari AM, Koivisto VA, Rutanen EM, Yki-Jarvinen H, Karonen SL, Seppala M: Insulin regulates the serum levels of low molecular weight insulin-like growth factor binding protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;66:266–272.
44.
Busby WH, Snyder DK, Clemmons DR: Radioimmunoassay of a 26,000-dalton plasma insulin-like growth factor-binding protein: Control by nutritional variables. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;67:1225–1230.
45.
Clemmons DR, Snyder DK, Busby WH Jr: Variables controlling the secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 in normal human subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:727–723.
46.
Rosenfeld RG, Pham H, Cohen P, Fielder P, Gargosky SE, Muller H, Nonoshita L, Oh Y: Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins and their regulation. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1994;399:154–158.
47.
Baron J, Klein KO, Colli MJ, Yanovski JA, Novosad JA, Bacher JD, Cutler GB: Catch-up growth after glucocorticoid excess: A mechanism intrinsic to the growth plate. Endocrinology 1994;135:1367–1371.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.