Background/Aims: Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), a mesomelic short stature syndrome with Madelung deformity, was recently reported to be caused by SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing gene) haploinsufficiency. The loss of SHOX on Xp22.32, also called PHOG (pseudoautosomal homeobox-containing osteogenic gene), through structural aberrations of the X chromosome was also implicated in the short stature phenotype and some additional stigmata of Turner syndrome. The aim of this study was to systematically examine left-hand radiographs from Turner girls for the presence of signs of LWD. Methods: We retrospectively studied 168 left-hand radiographs from 54 patients with Turner syndrome (bone age >10.5 years) who were treated with rhGH and seen during the last 10 years in our clinic. For comparison, we analyzed 7 radiographs from 5 patients with LWD and 52 radiographs from 20 patients with GH deficiency. The shape of the distal radial epiphysis (triangularisation index = TI) and the carpal angle were quantitatively measured. In addition, we screened for the presence of a premature cleft fusion or an ulnar deviation of the articular surface of the distal radial epiphysis and for fourth metacarpal shortening. One of 54 Turner girls (2%) was affected with LWD and presented with Madelung deformity. Results: No milder forms of Madelung deformity were detected. However, there was a significant trend to a triangular shape of the distal radial epiphysis in Turner syndrome: the median TI was 2.7 in normal controls (range 1.8–3.7), 3.1 in Turner girls (range 2.0–6.3) (p < 0.001 against controls), and 6.0 in patients with LWD (range 3.5–11.0) (p < 0.001 against controls). Conclusions: The triangularisation index did not correlate with the carpal angle (median 122.5

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