Thyroid tuberculosis is rare. In the last decade, however, the incidence of extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis has increased. We report on 2 cases of thyroid tuberculosis. In case 1, a tubercular abscess mimicking acute thyroiditis was found which was correctly diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAb). No evidence of active disease was noticed. Pleural thickening on chest X-ray was the only sign compatible with a previous infection. In case 2, tubercular thyroiditis with lymph node enlargement was also diagnosed by FNAb in a reevaluation setting. In both cases treatment with antitubercular drugs resulted in complete recovery. Thyroid tuberculosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, notably in patients with a history of tuberculous disease. FNAb represents the main approach to making the diagnosis.

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