Thyroid tuberculosis is rare. In the last decade, however, the incidence of extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis has increased. We report on 2 cases of thyroid tuberculosis. In case 1, a tubercular abscess mimicking acute thyroiditis was found which was correctly diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAb). No evidence of active disease was noticed. Pleural thickening on chest X-ray was the only sign compatible with a previous infection. In case 2, tubercular thyroiditis with lymph node enlargement was also diagnosed by FNAb in a reevaluation setting. In both cases treatment with antitubercular drugs resulted in complete recovery. Thyroid tuberculosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, notably in patients with a history of tuberculous disease. FNAb represents the main approach to making the diagnosis.

1.
Tan KK: Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland – A review. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1993;22:580–582.
2.
Sachs MK, Dickinson G, Amazon K: Tuberculous adenitis of the thyroid mimicking subacute thyroiditis. Am J Med 1988;85:573–575.
3.
Havlir DV, Barnes PF: Tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1998;340:367–373.
4.
Pablos-Mendez A, Raviglione MC, Laszlo A, Binkin N, Rieder HL, Bustreo F, Cohn DL, Lambregts-van Weezenbeek CS, Kim SJ, Chaulet P, Nunn P: Global surveillance for antituberculosis-drug resistance, 1994–1997. World Health Organization-International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Working Group on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1641–1649.
5.
Kochi A: Tuberculosis: Distribution, risk factors, mortality. Immunobiology 1994;191:325–336.
6.
Squarcione S, Carbini R, D’Amato S, Troiano T: Tuberculosis in Italy during the period 1992–1994: An analysis of the individual case-report forms. Mediterranean J Infect Parasitic Dis 1996;11:23–28.
7.
Rakin FW, Graham AS: Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland. Ann Surg 1932;96:625–648.
8.
Khan EM, Haque I, Pandey R, Mishra SK, Sharma AK: Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: A clinicopathological profile of four cases and review of the literature. Aust NZ J Surg 1993;63:807–810.
9.
Postlethwaite NW, Berg P: Tuberculosis abscess of the thyroid gland. Arch Surg 1944;48:429–437.
10.
Neeuwland Y, Tan KY, Elte JWF: Miliary tuberculosis presenting with thyrotoxicosis. Postgrad Med J 1992;68:677–679.
11.
Barnes B, Weatherstone R: Tuberculosis of the thyroid: Two case reports. Br J Dis Chest 1979;73:187–191.
12.
Liote HA, Spaulding C, Bazelly B, Milleron BJ, Akoun GM: Thyroid tuberculosis associated with mediastinal lymphadenitis. Tubercle 1987;68:229–231.
13.
Aisaka H, Yamagishi M, Kurihara M, Asakawa M, Abe S, Himi T: A case of tuberculosis of the thyroid gland. Kekkaku 1993;68:565–570.
14.
Das DK, Bhambhani S, Pant JN, Parkash S, Murthy NS, Hedau ST, Sodhani P, Pant CS: Superficial and deep-seated tuberculous lesions: Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of 574 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1992;8:211–215.
15.
Thompson KS, Donzelli J, Jensen J, Pachucki C, Eng AM, Reyes CV: Breast and cutaneous mycobacteriosis: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 1997;17:45–49.
16.
Mondal A, Patra DK: Efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: A study of 18 cases. J Laryngol Otol 1995;109:36–38.
17.
Das DK, Pant CS, Chachra KL, Gupta AK: Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of tuberculous thyroiditis. A report of eight cases. Acta Cytol 1992;36:517–522.
18.
Takami H, Kozakai M: Tuberculous thyroiditis: Report of a case with a review of the literature. Endocr J 1994;41:743–747.
19.
Herach HR, Williams ED: The pathology of granulomatous diseases of the thyroid gland. Sarcoidosis 1990;7:19–27.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.