Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is the primary hormone influencing fetal growth in later gestation. The regulation of fetal IGF-I in utero is primarily influenced by placental glucose transfer, which regulates fetal insulin release. Furthermore, insulin has direct adipogenic effects on the fetus; fetal growth hormone (GH) may also have additional modes of action on fetal growth. Swallowed amniotic fluid contains IGF-I and may influence gastrointestinal maturation and fetal growth. Furthermore, both fetal and maternal IGF-I can influence placental metabolism. Experimentally, the maternal administration of GH and IGF-I can affect placental function and thus influence fetal growth; this may suggest therapeutic approaches to the treatment of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in utero. Both experimental and clinical evidence support our hypothesis that IUGR is a multihormone relative resistance syndrome; relative resistance to insulin, IGF-I and GH can be demonstrated. Such resistance may be the basis of altered programming by which fetal growth retardation is associated with postnatal growth failure and a greater propensity to develop cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.