Glucose intolerance and noninsulin-dependent diabetes are commonly associated with hypertension. Epidemiological data suggest that this association is independent of age and obesity. Much evidence indicates that the link between diabetes and essential hypertension is hyperinsulinemia. When hypertensive patients whether obese or of normal weight are compared with matched normotensive control subjects, an increased plasma insulin response to a glucose challenge is consistently observed. Studies using insulin glucose clamp techniques in combination with tracer glucose infusion and indirect calorimetry have demonstrated that the insulin resistance in hypertensive subjects is located in muscles and restricted to glycogen synthesis. The relations between hyperinsulinemia and blood pressure do not prove that the relationship is a causal one. However, at least four mechanisms may link hyperinsulinemia with hypertension: Na+ retention, sympathetic nervous system overactivity, disturbed membrane ion transport and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Diuretics and β-blockers may enhance insulin resistance, which is not affected by calcium antagonists, but decreased by the ACE inhibitor captopril. Weight reduction and regular physical exercise can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease blood pressure values. These nonpharmacological interventions should be more strongly recommended to diabetic and nondiabetic hypertensive patients.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.