Objectives: The question of interest is estimating the relationship between haplotypes and an outcome measure, based upon unphased genotypes. The outcome of interest might be predicting the presence of disease in a logistic model, predicting a numeric drug response in a linear model, or predicting survival time in a parametric survival model with censoring. Explanatory variables may include phased haplotype design variables, environmental variables, or interactions between them. Methods: We extend existing generalized linear haplotype models to parametric survival outcomes. To improve the stability of model variance estimates, a profile likelihood solution is proposed. An adjustment for population stratification is also considered. Here we investigate data sampled from known ‘strata’ (e.g., gender or ethnicity) that influence haplotype prior probabilities and thus the regression model weights. Differing linear model variance estimates, and the effect of stratification and departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) on parameter estimates, are compared and contrasted via simulation. Results: From simulations, we observed an improvement in statistical power when using a solution to profile likelihood equations. We also saw that stratification had little impact on estimates. Haplotypes that are not in HWE had a negative impact on power to test hypotheses. Finally, profile likelihood solutions for haplotypes deviating from HWE had improved power and confidence interval coverage of regression model coefficients.

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