A population genetic study among the Kota of the Nilgiri Hills, South India, involved tests for abnormal haemoglobins, 5 red cell antigen systems, 4 serum protein and 13 red cell enzyme systems. Twelve systems are invariant in the Kota. The most distinctive characteristics are extremely low frequency of the A1gene and complete absence of A2in the ABO system, r(cde) in the Rh system, LDHCal-1among the enzyme systems as well as absence of abnormal haemoglobins. A comparison of gene frequencies in those systems, which show variation, suggests that the Kota are more similar to the Toda than to any other tribal or caste population of the area. Genetic distance as well as principal component analysis also reveals that the Toda and Kota are close to each other, in agreement with tradition.

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