Racism is an element of the sociocultural context that may significantly impact personal identity development among youth of color in the USA. However, theories of personal identity development largely do not consider the influence of racialized experiences. This paper presents a theoretical framework of the role of racism on adolescent personal identity development (RAPID framework); we demonstrate its utility with the example of interpersonal forms of racism in the context of racially marginalized youth in the USA. The RAPID framework combines psychological and sociological perspectives on identity development to describe moments in the process that may be affected by aspects of racism (e.g., stereotypes, biases). Empirical support for aspects of the framework is drawn from research on adolescents’ ethnic-racial identities and specific aspects of personal identities (e.g., academic identity). To create environments that promote positive personal identity development for ethnic-racially marginalized youth, the RAPID framework addresses potential barriers that can be eliminated and highlights aspects of resilience that can be supported. Suggestions for empirical research on the RAPID framework, as well as for theoretical extensions of it, are discussed.

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