Sexuality is central in human life, perhaps especially in adolescence when multiple dimensions of change constitute physical, psychological, and social challenges and opportunities for the developing young person. Understanding this constellation of challenges and opportunities and formulating constructive, supportive interventions would be greatly facilitated by a skills-based model for promoting sexuality development in adolescence. Moving beyond the deficit, sex-negative approach, I propose a model that identifies three key elements of skillful adolescent sexuality development: sexual selfhood, sexual negotiation, and sexual empowerment. I link these components through the processes of personal agency, interpersonal intimacy, and social advocacy. I consider limitations of the model as well as the next steps for applying this theoretical framework to future empirical studies that seek to describe, explain, and optimize sexuality development throughout the adolescent years.

1.
Albarracin, D., Johnson, B.T., Fishbein, M., & Muellerleile, P.A. (2001). Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 142-146.
2.
Albert, B. (2004). With one voice: America's adults and teens sound off about teen pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
3.
Albert, D., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Judgment and decision making in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 211-224.
4.
Babin, E.A. (2012). An examination of predictors of nonverbal and verbal communication of pleasure during sex and sexual satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30, 270-292.
5.
Baltes, P.B., & Baltes, M.M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P.B. Baltes & M.M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1-34). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
6.
Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 164-180.
7.
Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (2012). Recovering empowerment: De-personalizing and re-politicizing adolescent female sexuality. Sex Roles, 66, 713-717.
8.
Bay-Cheng, L.Y., & Eliseo-Arras, R.K. (2008). The making of unwanted sex: Gendered and neoliberal norms in college women's unwanted sexual experiences. Journal of Sex Research, 45, 386-397.
9.
Bay-Cheng, L.Y., Livingston, J.A., & Fava, N.M. (2010). Adolescent girls' assessment and management of sexual risks: Insights from focus group research. Youth & Society, 43, 1167-1193.
10.
Beres, M. (2007). ‘Spontaneous' sexual consent: An analysis of sexual consent literature. Feminism & Psychology, 17, 93-108.
11.
Beres, M.A., Herold, E., & Maitland, S.B. (2004). Sexual consent behaviors in same-sex relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33, 475-486.
12.
Bolland, J.M. (2003). Hopelessness and risk behaviour among adolescents living in high-poverty inner-city neighbourhoods. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 145-158.
13.
Boyd, M.J., & Dobrow, J. (2011). Media literacy and positive youth development. In R.M. Lerner, J.V. Lerner, & J.B. Benson (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (pp. 251-271). London, England: Elsevier.
14.
Brandtstädter, J. (2006). Action perspectives on human development. In W. Damon & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 516-568). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
15.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
16.
Bruckner, H., & Bearman, P. (2005). After the promise: The STD consequences of adolescent virginity pledges. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 271-278.
17.
Byers, E.S., & Demmons, S. (1999). Sexual satisfaction and sexual self-disclosure within dating relationship. Journal of Sex Research, 36, 180-189.
18.
Cass, V. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219-235.
19.
Catania, J.A., Kegeles, S.M., & Coates, T.J. (1990). Towards an understanding of risk behavior: An AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM). Health Education Quarterly, 17, 53-72.
20.
Compas, B.E., & Reeslund, K.L. (2009). Processes of risk and resilience during adolescence. In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Vol. 1. Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., pp. 561-588). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
21.
Connolly, J., Furman, W., & Konarski, R. (2000). The role of peers in the emergence of heterosexual romantic relationships in adolescence. Child Development, 71, 1395-1408.
22.
Connolly, J.A., & McIsaac, C. (2009). Romantic relationships in adolescence. In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Vol. 2. Contextual influences on adolescent development (3rd ed., pp. 104-151). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
23.
Côté, J.E. (2009). Identity formation and self development in adolescence. In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Vol. 1. Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., pp. 266-304). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
24.
Crenshaw, K.W. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241-1299.
25.
Crockett, L.J., Raffaelli, M., & Moilanen, K.L. (2003). Adolescent sexuality: Behavior and meaning. In G.R. Adams & M.D. Berzonsky (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of adolescence. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
26.
Diamond, L.M. (2003). New paradigms for research on heterosexual and sexual-minority development. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 490-498.
27.
Diamond, L.M. (2005). Toward greater specificity in modeling the ecological context of desire. Human Development, 24, 291-297.
28.
Diamond, L.M. (2008). Sexual fluidity: Understanding women's love and desire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
29.
Diamond, L.M., & Savin-Williams, R.C. (2002). Gender and sexual identity. In R.M. Lerner, F. Jacobs, & D. Wortlieb (Eds.), Handbook of applied developmental science (pp. 101-121). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
30.
Diamond, L.M., & Savin-Williams, R.C. (2009). Adolescent sexuality. In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Vol. 1. Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., pp. 479-523). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
31.
Diemer, M.A., & Li, C.H. (2011). Critical consciousness development and political participation among marginalized youth. Child Development, 82, 1815-1833.
32.
Edgar, T., Noar, S.M., & Murphy, B. (2008). In T. Edgar, S.M. Noar, & V.S. Freimuth (Eds.), Communication perspectives on HIV/AIDS for the 21st century. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
33.
Eisenberg, N., Morris, A.S., McDaniel, B., & Spinrad, T.L. (2009). Moral cognitions and prosocial responding in adolescence. In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Vol. 1. Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., pp. 229-265). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
34.
Elder, G.H., Jr., & Shanahan, M.J. (2006). The life course and human development. In W. Damon & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 665-715). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
35.
Elkind, D. (1967). Egocentrism in adolescents. Child Development, 38, 1025-1034.
36.
Epstein, M., & Ward, L.M. (2008). “Always use protection”: Communication boys receive about sex from parents, peers, and the media. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 113-126.
37.
Erikson, E.H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. Psychological Issues, 1, 50-100.
38.
Erkut, S., Fields, J.P., Sing, R., & Marx, F. (1996). Diversity in girls' experiences: Feeling good about who you are. In B.J.R. Leadbeater & N. Way (Eds.), Urban girls: Resisting stereotypes, creating identities (pp. 53-64). New York, NY: New York University Press.
39.
Fava, N.M., & Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (2012). Trauma-informed sexuality education: Recognizing the rights and resilience of youth. Sex Education, 13, 1-12.
40.
Fine, F. (1988). Sexuality, schooling, and adolescent females: The missing discourse of desire. Harvard Educational Review, 58, 29-53.
41.
Fine, F., & McClelland, S. (2006). Sexuality education and desire: Still missing after all these years. Harvard Educational Review, 76, 297-338.
42.
Fischer, K.W., & Bidell, T.R. (2006). Dynamic development of action, thought, and emotion. In W. Damon & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 313-399). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
43.
Fischer, K.W., & van Geert, P. (2013). Dynamic development of brain and behavior. In P.C.M. Molenaar, R.M. Lerner, & K. Newell (Eds.), Handbook of developmental systems theory and methodology. New York, NY: Guilford.
44.
Fishbein, M. (2000). The role of theory in HIV prevention. AIDS Care, 12, 273-278.
45.
Fisher, C.B., Busch-Rossnagel, N.B., Jopp, D.S., & Brown, J.L. (2012). Applied developmental science, social justice and socio-political well-being. Applied Developmental Science, 16, 54-64.
46.
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum.
47.
Gagnon, J.H., & Simon, W. (1973). Sexual conduct: The social sources of human sexuality. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
48.
Gardner, H.E., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Damon, W. (2002). Good work: When excellence and ethics meet. New York, NY: Basic Books.
49.
Gavey, N. (2005). Just sex?: The cultural scaffolding of rape. New York, NY: Routledge.
50.
Ginwright, S., & James, T. (2002). From assets to agents of change: Social justice, organizing, and youth development. New directions for youth development, 96, 27-46.
51.
Hacker, K., Brown, E., Cabral, H., & Dodds, D. (2005). Applying a transtheoretical behavioral change model to HIV/STD and pregnancy prevention in adolescent clinics. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, S80-S93.
52.
Hammack, P.L. (2005). The life course development of human sexual orientation: An integrative paradigm. Human Development, 48, 267-290.
53.
Harter, S. (2006). The self. In W. Damon & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 505-570). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
54.
Helwig, C.C. (2006). Rights, civil liberties, and democracy across cultures. In M. Killen & J.G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 185-209). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
55.
Hickman, S.E., & Muehlenhard, C.L. (1999). “By the semi-mystical appearance of a condom”: How young women and men communicate sexual consent in heterosexual situations. Journal of Sex Research, 36, 258-272.
56.
Hill, J.P. (1983). Early adolescence: A research agenda. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 3, 1-21.
57.
Humphreys, T.P. (2012). Cognitive frameworks of virginity and first intercourse. Journal of Sex Research, 50, 664-675.
58.
Hyde, J.S., & DeLamater, J.D. (2013). Understanding human sexuality (12th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
59.
Impett, E.A., & Breines, J.G. (2013). From risk to pleasure: Toward a positive psychology of sexuality. In M. Hojjat & D. Cramer (Eds.), Positive psychology of love. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
60.
Impett, E.A., Peplau, L.A., & Gable, S.L. (2005). Approach and avoidance sexual motives: Implications for personal and interpersonal well-being. Personal Relationships, 12, 465-482.
61.
Jackson, S. (2011). Heterosexual hierarchies: A commentary on class and sexuality. Sexualities, 14, 12-20.
62.
Joint Committee on National Health Education Standards (2007). National health education standards: Achieving excellence (2nd ed.). Atlanta, GA: American School Health Association, Association for the Advancement of Health Education, and the American Cancer Society.
63.
Katz, J. (2006). The macho paradox: Why some men hurt women and how all men can help. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks.
64.
Kiefer, A.K., & Sanchez, D.T. (2007). Scripting sexual passivity: A gender role perspective. Personal Relationships, 14, 269-290.
65.
Kim, J.L., Sorsoll, C.L., Collins, K., Zylbergold, B.A., Schooler, D., & Tolman, D.L. (2007). From sex to sexuality: Exposing the heterosexual script on primetime network television. Journal of Sex Research, 44, 145-157.
66.
Kirby, D. (2007). Emerging answers 2007: Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy.
67.
Lamb, S. (2010). Toward a sexual ethics curriculum: Bringing philosophy and society to bear on individual development. Harvard Educational Review, 80, 81-105.
68.
Larson, R.W., Wilson, S., & Rickman, A. (2009). Globalization, societal change, and adolescence across the world. In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Vol. 2. Contextual influences on adolescent development (3rd ed., pp. 590-622). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
69.
Lerner, R.M. (1982). Children and adolescents as producers of their own development. Developmental Review, 2, 342-370.
70.
Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and theories of human development (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
71.
Lerner, R.M. (2006). Developmental science, developmental systems, and contemporary theories of human development. In W. Damon & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 1-17). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
72.
Lerner, R.M., Lerner, J.V., Bowers, E.P., & Geldhof, G.J. (in press). Positive youth development: A relational developmental systems model. In W.F. Overton & P.C. Molenaar (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Vol. 1. Theory and method (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
73.
Levine, S.B. (1984). An essay on the nature of sexual desire. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 10, 83-96.
74.
Liben, L.S., Bigler, R.S., & Hilliard, L.J. (2014). Gender development: From universality to individuality. In E.T. Gershoff, R. Mistry, & D. Crosby (Eds.), Societal contexts of child development: Pathways of influence and implications for practice and policy (pp. 3-18). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
75.
Lloyd, E.A. (2005). The case of the female orgasm: Bias in the science of evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
76.
MacDonald, T.K., & Hynie, M. (2008). Ambivalence and unprotected sex: Failure to predict sexual activity and decreased condom use. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1092-1107.
77.
Mahler, M.S., Pine, F., & Bergman, A. (1975). The psychological birth of the infant. New York, NY: Basic.
78.
Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954-969.
79.
Mascolo, M.F. (2013). Developing through relationships: An embodied coactive systems framework. In R.M. Lerner & J.B. Benson (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior: Vol. 45. Embodiment and epigenesis: Theoretical and methodological issues in understanding the role of biology within the relational developmental system (pp. 185-226). Waltham, MA: Elsevier.
80.
McClelland, S.I. (2010). Intimate justice: A critical analysis of sexual satisfaction. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 663-680.
81.
McCormick, N.B. (2010). Sexual scripts: Social and therapeutic implications. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 25, 96-120.
82.
Moore, S. (1999). Sexuality in adolescence: A suitable case for coping? In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Learning to cope: Developing as a person in complex societies (pp. 64-80). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
83.
Moshman, D. (2011). Adolescents and their teenage brains. Human Development, 54, 201-203.
84.
Nucci, L. (2006). Education for moral development. In M. Killen & J.G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 657-681). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
85.
Overton, W.F. (2010). Life-span development: Concepts and issues. In W.R. Overton (Ed.), Handbook of life-span development: Vol. 1. Cognition, biology, and methods across the life span (pp. 1-29). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
86.
Overton, W.F. (2013). Relationism and relational developmental systems: A paradigm for developmental science in the post-Cartesian era. In R.M. Lerner & J.B. Benson (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior: Vol. 44. Embodiment and epigenesis: Theoretical and methodological issues in understanding the role of biology within the relational developmental system (pp. 21-64). Waltham, MA: Elsevier.
87.
Peterson, Z.D., & Muehlenhard, C.L. (2007). Conceptualizing the “wantedness” of women's consensual and nonconsensual sexual experiences: Implications for how women label their experiences with rape. Journal of Sex Research, 44, 72-88.
88.
Renn, K.A. (2007). LGBT student leaders and queer activists: Identities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer identified college student leaders and activists. Journal of College Student Development, 48, 311-330.
89.
Richardson, J., & Schuster, M. (2003). Everything you never wanted your kids to know about sex (but were afraid they'd ask). New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.
90.
Rickert, V.I., Sanghvi, R., & Wiemann, C.M. (2002). Is lack of sexual assertiveness among adolescent and young adult women a cause for concern? Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 34, 178-183.
91.
Robinson, T., & Ward, J.V. (1991). “A belief in self far greater than anyone's disbelief”: Cultivating resistance among African American female adolescents. In C. Gilligan, A.G. Rogers, & D.L. Tolman (Eds.), Women, girls, and psychotherapy: Reframing resistance (pp. 87-103). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.
92.
Rojas, M., Braun-Courville, D., Nucci-Sack, A., & Diaz, A. (2009). Brief motivational interventions for adolescent health promotion in clinical settings. In R.J. DiClemente, J.S. Santelli, & R.A. Crosby (Eds.), Adolescent health: Understanding and preventing risk behaviors (pp. 493-510). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
93.
Rubin, L.S., Nemeroff, C.J., & Russo, N.F. (2004). Exploring feminist women's body consciousness. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 27-37.
94.
Russell, S.T. (2002). Queer in America: Citizenship for sexual minority youth. Applied Developmental Science, 6, 258-263.
95.
Russell, S.T. (2005). Conceptualizing positive adolescent sexuality development. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 2, 4-12.
96.
Rye, B.J., & Meaney, G.J. (2007). The pursuit of sexual pleasure. Sexuality & Culture, 11, 28-51.
97.
Saewyc, E.M., Poon, C.S., Homma, Y., & Skay, C.L. (2008). Stigma management? The links between enacted stigma and teen pregnancy trends among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in British Columbia. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 17, 123-139.
98.
Savin-Williams, R.C. (2005). The new gay teenager. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
99.
Schalet, A.T. (2011). Not under my roof: Parents, teens, and the culture of sex. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
100.
Smetana, J.G. (2006). Social-cognitive domain theory: Consistencies and variations in children's moral and social judgments. In M. Killen & J.G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 119-153). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
101.
Spencer, M.B. (2006). Phenomenology and ecological systems theory: Development of diverse groups. In W. Damon & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 829-893). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
102.
Steinberg, L. (2011). Adolescence (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
103.
Steinberg, L. (2013). Does recent research on adolescent brain development inform the mature minor doctrine? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 38, 256-267.
104.
Stranger-Hall, K.F., & Hall, D.W. (2011). Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: Why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S. PLoS One, 6, e24658.
105.
Susman, E.J., & Dorn, L.D. (2009). Puberty: Its role in development. In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Vol. 1. Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., pp. 116-151). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
106.
Theokas, C., & Lerner, R.M. (2006). Observed ecological assets in families, schools, and neighborhoods: Conceptualization, measurement, and relations with positive and negative developmental outcomes. Applied Developmental Science, 10, 61-74.
107.
Tolman, D.L. (2002). Dilemmas of desire: Teenage girls talk about sexuality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
108.
Tolman, D.L. (2006). In a different position: Conceptualizing female adolescent sexuality development within compulsory heterosexuality. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 112, 71-89.
109.
Tolman, D.L. (2012). Female adolescents, sexual empowerment and desire: A missing discourse of gender inequity. Sex Roles, 66, 746-757.
110.
Tolman, D.L., & McClelland, S.I. (2011). Normative sexuality development in adolescence: A decade in review, 2000-2009. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 242-255.
111.
Tolman, D.L., Spencer, R., Rosen-Reynoso, M., & Porche, M.V. (2003). Sowing the seeds of violence in heterosexual relationships: Early adolescents narrate compulsory heterosexuality. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 159-178.
112.
Tolman, D.L., Striepe, M.I., & Harmon, T. (2003). Gender matters: Constructing a model of adolescent sexual health. Journal of Sex Research, 40, 4-12.
113.
Turiel, E. (2006). Thought, emotions, and social interactional processes in moral development. In M. Killen & J.G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 7-35). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
114.
Ussher, J.M. (2005). V. The meaning of sexual desire: Experiences of heterosexual and lesbian girls. Feminism & Psychology, 15, 27-32.
115.
Wade, L. (2013). The new science of sex difference. Sociology Compass, 7, 278-293.
116.
Wade, L., & Heldman, C. (2012). Hooking up and opting out. In L.M. Carpenter & J. DeLamater (Eds.), Sex for life: From virginity to Viagra, how sexuality changes throughout our lives (pp. 129-145). New York, NY: New York University Press.
117.
Walker, L.J. (2006). Gender and morality. In M. Killen & J.G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 93-115). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
118.
Ward, L.M., Day, K.M., & Epstein, M. (2006). Uncommonly good: exploring how mass media may be a positive influence on young women's sexual health and development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2006, 57-70.
119.
Way, N. (2011). Deep secrets: Boys' friendships and the crisis of connection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
120.
Yon-Leau, C., & Muñoz-Laboy, M. (2010). “I don't like to say that I'm anything”: Sexuality politics and cultural critique among sexual-minority Latino youth. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 7, 105-117.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.