This paper outlines a theoretical framework intended to provide a more ecological and holistic accounting of how, why and where people learn in relation to constructs of human difference – race, class, disability designation, etc. – as learners circulate across places and associated operating value systems over multiple timescales. The framework for cultural learning pathways is an application and elaboration of Ole Dreier’s theory of persons in diversities of structures of social practice with a focus on the learning of disciplinary practices and the development of discipline-related identities. We summarize relevant learning phenomena along extended cultural pathways from three team ethnographies of science learning. We outline how power-related issues associated with privilege and marginalization are attended to in relation to the social, cultural, and material circumstances of learning within and across environments and discuss future research opportunities.

1.
Baines, A.D. (2011). Identities in motion: An ethnographic study of disability labels, social categories, and the everyday lives of youth (unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Washington, Seattle.
2.
Baines, A.D. (2012). Positioning, strategizing, and charming: How students with autism construct identities in relation to disability. Disability and Society,27, 547–561.
3.
Baines, A.D., Bell, P., & Peck, C.A. (in review). Identities in motion: Competence and disability on a high school debate team.
4.
Bang, M., & Medin, D. (2010). Cultural processes in science education: Supporting the navigation of multiple epistemologies. Science Education,94, 1008–1026.
5.
Banks, J.A., Au, K.H., Ball, A.F., Bell, P., Gordon, E.W., Gutiérrez, K.D., & Zhou, M. (2007). Learning in and out of school in diverse environments: Life-long, life-wide, life-deep. Seattle: LIFE Center and Center for Multicultural Education (University of Washington).
6.
Barron, B. (2006). Interest and self-sustained learning as catalysts of development: A learning ecology perspective. Human Development, 49, 193–224.
7.
Bell, P., Bricker, L.A., Lee, T.R., Reeve, S., & Zimmerman, H.T. (2006). Understanding the cultural foundations of children’s biological knowledge: Insights from everyday cognition research. In S.A. Barab, K.E. Hay, & D. Hickey (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) (pp. 1029–1035). Mahwah: LEA.
8.
Bell, P., Bricker, L.A., Reeve, S., Zimmerman, H.T., & Tzou, C. (2012). Discovering and supporting successful learning pathways of youth in and out of school: Accounting for the development of everyday expertise across settings. In B. Bevan, P. Bell, R. Stevens, & A. Razfar (Eds.), LOST opportunities: Learning in out of school time (pp. 119–140). London: Springer.
9.
Bell, P., Lewenstein, B., Shouse, A.W., & Feder, M.A. (Eds.) (2009). Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments, Board on Science Education, National Research Council. Washington: National Academies Press.
10.
Bransford, J.D., & Schwartz, D.L. (2009). It takes expertise to make expertise: Some thoughts about why and how and reflections on the themes in chapters 15–18. In K. Anders Ericsson (Ed.), Development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments (pp. 432–448). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
11.
Bransford, J., Stevens, R., Schwartz, D., Meltzoff, A.N., Pea, R., Rochelle, J., & Sabelli, N. (2006). Learning theories and education: Toward a decade of synergy. In P. Alexander & P. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 209–244). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
12.
Bricker, L.A., & Bell, P. (in review). ‘I want to be an engineer’: Network, framing, and positioning dynamics associated with youth STEM learning and expertise development in and out of school.
13.
Bricker, L.A., & Bell, P. (2012). ‘GodMode is his video game name’: Situating learning and identity in structures of social practice. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 7, 883–902.
14.
Brickhouse, N.W., Lowery, P., & Schultz, K. (2000). What kind of girl does science? Journal of Research in Science Teaching,37, 441–458.
15.
Bruner, J. (1996). Foreward. In B. Shore (Ed.), Culture in mind: Cognition, culture, and the problem of meaning. New York: Oxford University Press.
16.
Calabrese Barton, A., & Brickhouse, N.W. (2006). Engaging girls in science. In C. Skelton, B. Francis, & C. Smulyan (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of gender and education (pp. 221–235). London: Sage.
17.
Calabrese Barton, A., & Tan, E. (2009). Funds of knowledge and discourses and hybrid space. Journal of Research in Science Teaching,46, 50–73.
18.
Casey, E.S. (1996). How to get from space to place in a fairly short stretch of time: Phenomenological prolegomena. In S. Feld & K.H. Basso (Eds)., Sense of place (pp. 13–52). Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.
19.
Crowley, K., & Jacobs, M. (2002). Building islands of expertise in everyday family activity. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, & K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning conversations in museums (pp. 333–356). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
20.
Dreier, O. (2008). Psychotherapy in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
21.
Dreier, O. (2009). Persons in structures of social practice. Theory and Psychology, 19, 193–212.
22.
Gee, J.P. (2004). Situated language and learning: A critique of traditional schooling. Florence: Psychology Press.
23.
Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success. New York: Little, Brown, and Company.
24.
Gutiérrez, K.D. (2008). Developing a sociocritical literacy in the third space. Reading Research Quarterly,43, 148–164.
25.
Harré, R., Moghaddam, F.M., Cairnie, T.P., Rothbart, D., & Sabat, S.R. (2009). Recent advances in positioning theory. Theory and Psychology,19, 5–31.
26.
Heath, S.B. (1990). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
27.
Herrenkohl, L.R., & Mertl, V. (2010). How students come to be, know, and do: A case for a broad view of learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
28.
Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist,42, 111–127.
29.
Latour, B. (1995). The ‘pedofil’ of Boa Vista: A photo-philosophical montage. Common Knowledge,4, 147–187.
30.
Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
31.
Lave, J. (1987). Cognition in practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
32.
Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
33.
Lee, C.D. (2008). The centrality of culture to the scientific study of learning and development: How an ecological framework in education research facilitates civic responsibility. Educational Researcher,37, 267–279.
34.
Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.
35.
Lemke, J.L. (2000). Across the scales of time: Artifacts, activities, and meanings in ecosocial systems. Mind, Culture, and Activity,7, 273–290.
36.
Nasir, N.S. (2012). Racialized identities: Race and achievement among African American youth. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
37.
Nasir, N.S., & Hand, V. (2008). From the court to the classroom: Opportunities for engagement, learning, and identity in basketball and classroom mathematics. The Journal of the Learning Sciences,17, 143–179.
38.
Nisbett, R.E. (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York: Norton & Company.
39.
Pea, R., & Brown, J.S. (1991). Preface. In Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (Eds.), Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
40.
Penuel, W.R., & Bell, P. (in preparation). Transforming identity trajectories as a focus for learning research and a goal for educational design.
41.
Rodman, M.C. (1992). Empowering place: Multilocality and mulivocality. American Anthropologist,94, 640–656.
42.
Rouse, J. (1996). Engaging science: How to understand its practices philosophically. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
43.
Saxe, G.B., & Esmonde, I. (2005). Studying cognition in flux: A historical treatment of Fu in the shifting structure of Oksapmin mathematics. Mind, Culture, and Activity, Special Issue: Combining longitudinal, cross-historical, and cross-cultural methods to study culture and cognition, 12, 171–225.
44.
Sheehy, M., & Leander, K.M. (2004). Introduction. In K.M. Leander & M. Sheehy (Eds), Spatializing literacy research and practice (pp. 1–15). New York: Lang.
45.
Steele, C.M. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi and other clues to how stereotypes affect us. New York: Norton and Company.
46.
Stevens, R., O’Connor, K., Garrison, L., Jocuns, A., & Amos, D.M. (2008). Becoming an engineer: Toward a three dimension view of engineering learning. Journal of Engineering Education,97, 355–368.
47.
Stevens, R., Satwicz, T., & McCarthy, L. (2008). In-game, in-room, in-world: Reconnecting video game play to the rest of kids’ lives. In K. Salen (Ed.), The ecology of games: Connecting youth, games, and learning (The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning, pp. 41–66). Cambridge: MIT Press.
48.
Tzou, C., & Bell, P. (2012). The role of borders in environmental education: Positioning, power, and the paradox of categories. Ethnography and Education,7, 265–282.
49.
Wilkinson, S., & Kitzinger, C. (2003). Constructing identities: A feminist conversation analytic approach to positioning in action. In R. Harré & F. Moghaddam (Eds.), The self and others: Positioning individuals and groups in personal, political, and cultural contexts (pp. 157–180). Westport: Praeger.
50.
Wortham, S. (2004). The interdependence of social identification and learning. American Educational Research Journal,41, 715–750.
51.
Wortham, S. (2005). Learning identity: The joint emergence of social identification and academic learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
52.
Zimmerman, H.T. (2012). Participating in science at home: Recognition work and learning in biology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching,49, 597–630.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.