A theoretical framework that incorporates emotional responses and emotion regulation into achievement goal theory is proposed as an alternative view to understanding the inconsistent pattern of findings linking achievement goal orientations to academic outcomes. In this critical review and synthesis, the relation of achievement goal orientations to debilitating emotional responses, as well as the use of emotion regulation strategies to alter debilitating emotions, is examined. Although mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goal orientations are considered, the regulation of debilitating emotions is proposed as especially critical for understanding how performance-approach goal orientations relate to academic-related processes and achievement. Finally, this framework is broadened to incorporate research on how the social context and intraindividual factors shape the resultant pattern of achievement goal orientations, emotional responses, and emotion regulation.

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