In this paper the development of cross-cultural research on attachment is discussed. It is argued that the universality hypothesis cannot be disproved by findings of divergent attachment classification distributions in cross-cultural studies. Furthermore, the search for a culture-free procedure to measure attachment may not be a fruitful strategy to establish the cross-cultural validity of attachment theory. Cross-cultural research should focus on testing theoretical predictions derived from attachment theory, especially the responsiveness hypothesis and the competence hypothesis. Paradoxically, ‘falsifying’ outcomes of cross-cultural studies may be ascribed either to general validity problems or more specifically to a lack of cross-cultural validity.