Sex differences in many aspects of early human development are reviewed: in physical growth and maturation, in motor activity and sensory capacities in infancy, in mother-infant interaction, in the onset of fear, in the social behaviour of of pre-school children, in exploration, play and creativity, and in intellectual functions. These data are considered in the context of evidence from other mammalian studies, with particular emphasis on the neuroendocrinological processes of sexual differentiation prior to birth. In intellectual functions, the female relies principally on linguistic skills. It is suggested the higher parent-daughter correlation in IQ measures is due to this fact as well as to the earlier maturation of the female, rather than to the greater genetic control of IQ in girls. The behavioural differences accompanying the morphological dimorphism appear to be extraordinarily and biologically adaptive.

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