Serum concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were measured in 29 patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) and an identical number of age-matched normal control subjects. The study was aimed at determining possible differences in androgen concentrations of ovarian and adrenal origin in POF patients and age-matched normal menstruating controls. Serum testosterone and DHEAS concentrations in the 2 populations were not significantly different. The serum androstenedione concentration in the POF patient group (3,077.50 ± 1,122.33 pmol/l) was significantly lower than in age-matched normal control subjects (4,167.70 ± 1,381.09 pmol/l, p < 0.005), possibly reflecting the loss of ovarian androstenedione secretion and/or a subtle defect in adrenal steroidogenic capacity.

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