Objectives: Sexual trauma poses a significant concern and is associated with heightened stress, negative health repercussions, and adverse economic effects. A history of abuse may increase a woman’s risk of developing cancer, in particular cervical cancer. We analyzed the impact of screening for sexual abuse in a gynecologic oncology population. Methods: Patients were screened for sexual trauma in a gynecologic oncology clinic over 5 and a half years (April 1, 2011, to September 30, 2016) in this cohort study. The screening questions were selected by behavioral oncology physicians and integrated into the gynecologic history component of the new patient assessment. Patients who screened positive for a history of sexual abuse or intimate partner violence were offered a behavioral oncology referral. Providers were also questioned about the effect of screening on their practice. Results: Of the 1,423 consecutive patients screened for sexual trauma, a total of 164 patients (12%) disclosed a history of sexual abuse. Of the 133 patients who specified their age at the sexual trauma, the majority (107 [80%]) responded that they were a young child or early teen. Most patients (92%) declined counseling. Among individuals presenting with cancer, the distribution of cancer type was statistically different between those patients with and without a sexual trauma history (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Screening for sexual trauma in a gynecologic oncologic population serves as a valuable opportunity to uncover a history of abuse that may increase a woman’s susceptibility to cancer. This study demonstrates that screening for sexual abuse in a gynecologic oncology setting may be integrated into new patient interviews with minimal disruption. Identification of an undisclosed sexual trauma history allows for an opportunity to offer counseling and minimize the emotional distress that may be precipitated by treatment and exams.

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