Introduction: Expression of fibroblast activation protein (FAP) has been detected in activated fibroblasts participating in injury response, fibrotic and inflammatory conditions, and tumorigenesis. Human endometrium is equally characterized by rapid tissue remodeling events due to the reproductive tasks comprising the activity of proteolytic enzymes. Objective: We therefore hypothesized that FAP-positive fibroblasts could also be involved in physiological processes requiring tissue remodeling, such as decidualization during early pregnancy. Methods/Results: The expression of FAP was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in frozen sections of decidual tissue from early pregnancy (gestational weeks: 6–12). All tissue samples clearly displayed a strong expression of FAP on the surface of stromal fibroblasts. Additionally, the percentage of FAP-positive fibroblasts freshly isolated from the decidua of the corresponding gestational weeks was calculated by applying FACS analysis. Decidual fibroblasts of different gestational weeks showed a significant decrease in FAP expression between the 6th and 7th weeks of gestation, which was followed by a steady slow reconstitution. By analyzing the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors of isolated FAP-positive decidual fibroblasts, we detected high levels of monocyte-attracting chemokines (growth-related oncogene alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and -2), granulocyte-attracting chemokines (e.g., IL-8), proinflammatory factors (IL-1α and tumor necrosis factor alpha), and angiogenic substances (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor and IL-8), which all promote an optimal microenvironment for implantation and growth of the conceptus. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the healthy early pregnancy decidua is characterized by a general occurrence of FAP-positive fibroblasts possibly participating in active tissue remodeling during implantation.

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