Introduction: Nowadays, the resection of submucosal myomas is usually performed by hysteroscopy. No previous study has investigated the use of preoperative hormonal therapy before outpatient hysteroscopic myomectomy. Objective: To compare the usefulness of 3-month preoperative treatment with ulipristal acetate (UPA) before outpatient hysteroscopic myomectomy in patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) type 0–1 myomas. Study Design: This prospective patient preference study included women requiring hysteroscopic resection of single FIGO type 0–1 myoma with the largest diameter <2 cm. Patients underwent either preoperative treatment with UPA (5 mg/day) for 3 months or direct surgery. Outpatient myomectomy was performed using the bipolar electrosurgical Versapoint system (Ethicon Gynecare, USA). The primary objective of the study was to compare the rate of complete resections in the 2 study groups. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the operative time and the volume of fluid infused/absorbed. The tertiary objective of the study was to assess the surgical appearance of the myomas in patients treated with UPA. Results: The study included 38 women treated with UPA and 45 women who underwent direct surgery. UPA treatment significantly decreased the volume of uterine myomas (p < 0.001). The percentage of complete resection was higher in patients treated with UPA (89.5%) than in those who underwent direct surgery (68.9%; p = 0.046). Preoperative UPA treatment decreased the operative time (p < 0.001) and the volume of fluid infused (p = 0.016), but it did not significantly affect the volume of fluid absorbed (p = 0.874). The texture of the myoma was not significantly affected by UPA treatment (p = 0.142). Conclusions: Three-month UPA treatment improves the chance of single-step complete outpatient hysteroscopic resection of single FIGO type 0–1 myoma. Future randomized studies with a larger sample size should confirm these preliminary findings.

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