Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a proinflammatory enzyme and a marker for neutrophil activation and oxidative stress. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are linked to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, we hypothesized that the total, active, and specific (active/total) MPO levels were significantly different in plasma of women with and without endometriosis. Samples were selected from our biobank from women with endometriosis (n = 212) and controls without endometriosis (n = 121) across the menstrual cycle. Total MPO plasma levels were measured by immunoassay and MPO activity by enzymatic assay. Total and active MPO levels did not differ significantly among endometriosis cases and controls, whereas the specific MPO activity was significantly lower in women with endometriosis than that in controls (p = 0.0159). After the subdivision of control patients into women with a normal pelvis and women with other benign gynecological disorders, a significant difference was observed only between women with endometriosis and women with other benign gynecological disorders (p = 0.0266). In conclusion, systemic MPO levels may not be suited as a single biomarker for endometriosis. Our data support the involvement of MPO in other gynecological disorders but do not provide any evidence for an association with endometriosis.

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