Background: Endometriosis is a polygenic and multifactorial disease. DNA damage plays a major role in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and aging and is usually repaired by the action of several DNA repair enzymes. We investigated the association of the common variations of the DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC4 with susceptibility to endometriosis in an Iranian population. Methods: In total, 160 patients with endometriosis (stages I-IV) and 174 healthy women were included in this case-control study. Genotyping of XRCC1 codon 399 as well as of XRCC4 -1394T/G, codon 247 and intron 3 insertion/deletion variations was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified fragments. Results: The XRCC4 -1394TG genotype frequency was significantly lower (p = 0.005) in the patients (9.4%) than in the controls (21.1%). The frequency of the -1394G allele was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in the patients (6.6%) than in the controls (19.0%). There were no statistically significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the XRCC1 codon 399, XRCC4 codon 247 and XRCC4 intron 3 insertion/deletion polymorphisms between the cases and controls. Conclusions: The XRCC4 -1394T/G polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to endometriosis in an Iranian population.

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