Background: The progression of the cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is associated with many cofactors, and nutritional aspects are gradually assuming an important role in understanding the physiopathogenesis. Objective: To assess the serum levels of retinol in women from a poor region of Brazil with a histological diagnosis of cervical high-grade SIL (HSIL). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 62 women aged 14-48 years who had a cervical biopsy and were treated at the Federal University of Ceara in Fortaleza, Brazil. Serum retinol levels were measured in peripheral blood by a spectrophotometry technique. Values were categorized as subnormal (<20 µg/dl) or normal (≥20 µg/dl). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between serum levels of retinol and HSIL for a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Twenty-six out of 62 women (42%) had a negative histopathological result for SIL and 36 (58%) were diagnosed with SIL (20 low SIL and 16 high SIL). The level of retinol was more frequently low in women with HSIL, but there was no statistical significance [p = 0.409, OR: 2.26 (0.33-15.59)]. Conclusion: There was no association between high SIL and low levels of retinol in peripheral blood.

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