Aims: The aims of this study were to analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnostic features, and operative outcomes of patients with ovarian fibroma/fibrothecoma and to discuss appropriate management options. Methods: We performed a retrospective comparative analysis of 97 patients with ovarian fibroma/fibrothecoma who underwent laparoscopic and laparotomic procedures, including tumorectomy between January 2008 and December 2011. Results: The mean patient age was 42.5 ± 11.4 years. Seventy-three patients (75.3%) were premenopausal women. A preoperative diagnosis of benign ovarian tumor or fibroma was made in only 49 cases (50.5%). We found that 42.2% of cases were misdiagnosed as uterine myomas (n = 41) and 6.2% were misdiagnosed as malignant ovarian tumors (n = 6). The presence of ascites was associated with larger tumor size (p < 0.05) but not higher CA125 levels (p = 0.159). Twenty-nine patients (29.9%) underwent laparotomy, and 68 (70.1%), laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic surgery facilitated shorter operation times than laparotomy (p < 0.05). Tumorectomy was performed in 40 patients (43.5%), 36 (90%) of whom underwent laparoscopy with operative outcomes comparable to those of patients who underwent laparotomy. Conclusions: Ovarian fibromas/fibrothecomas are often misdiagnosed as uterine myomas and malignant ovarian tumors. Laparoscopic surgery including tumorectomy may be an effective surgical approach in patients with ovarian fibromas/fibrothecomas.