Background/Aims: The HRP Special Programme (HRP) began addressing ‘reproduction’ problems (infertility) at the same time as ‘fertility regulation’ (contraception). Methods: This report is based upon data collected from official HRP Scientific and Technical Reports. Results: In the 1970s, HRP supported research on human and nonhuman primate models to address the basic biology of reproduction. Importantly, however, it was the multicountry clinical research studies sponsored by HRP during the 1970s and 1980s which led to the identification of not only the large burden of disease but also global patterns of causation of infertility. The next decade saw the development of WHO guidelines and manuals for diagnosis, management, and treatment of infertile women and men, with HRP-sponsored operations research focused on adaptation within primary health care settings. Consensus consultations held during 2001 through 2011 resulted in recommendations to stakeholders, as well as the identification of barriers and inequities in access to infertility care services. Conclusion: With renewed focus on infertility through the current development of revised guidelines and manuals, and the desire to support critical clinical research protocols, including adaptation and implementation research for management and monitoring tools being developed through international partners, HRP will continue to support future success stories in family, maternal, child, and reproductive health.

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