Aims: To assess the prevalence of thrombophilia among Chinese women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) developed during pregnancy. Methods: Based on information from a tertiary teaching unit, all recorded cases of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) during pregnancy diagnosed between 1997 and 2005, were assessed for prevalence of thrombophilia. Fifty-five healthy women, who had at least one normal pregnancy but without any previous history of VTE, were recruited as controls. Results: A total of 44 subjects completed thrombophilia screening, of whom 5 (11%) were confirmed to have thrombophilia [protein C (PC) deficiency (2), protein S (PS) deficiency (1), combined PC & PS deficiency (1) and antithrombin III deficiency (1)]. Homozygous 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) gene mutation was found in 6 (14%) subjects but not in the controls. There was no antiphospholipid syndrome, activated PC resistance, factor V Leiden or prothrombin gene mutations. Conclusion: In the Chinese population, PS and PC deficiencies are common thrombophilia for VTE during pregnancy and thrombophilia screening should be recommended in all pregnant women who suffer from VTE.