Introduction: Maternal risk factors may interfere with mechanisms regulating fetal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine which sociodemographic and reproductive risk factors may be related to fetal growth restriction (FGR), with a special focus on determinants possible for preventive intervention. Materials and Methods: The study period is from May 2007 until December 2009. Data about lifestyle habits were collected by use of a detailed questionnaire in 65 women who attended Riga Maternity Hospital with the confirmed diagnosis of intrauterine FGR of a singleton fetus, and in 65 matched controls with normal pregnancies. Results: Being unmarried (p = 0.04), having pregnancy-related blood pressure rise (p = 0.02), current (p = 0.01) and pre-pregnancy smoking (p = 0.01) and history of more than 3 pregnancy failures (p = 0.04) were more frequent in women with FGR than controls. Surprisingly, the finding of genital infection (STI) during pregnancy (p = 0.006) was also strongly associated with FGR. Conclusions: Obviously, several maternal risk factors play an important role in FGR. Besides refraining from smoking, screening and treating for STI may not only prevent preterm birth, but also FGR. Identifying such anticipating factors would likely have the potential impact if detected before conception, or as early as possible in gestation.

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