Aims: To determine the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) and an extended-interval dosing regimen in the treatment of patients with adenomyosis and endometriosis. Methods: This was a prospective observational study in the setting of a hospital outpatient clinic. Seventy women suffering from adenomyosis and endometriosis were randomly divided into 2 groups: extended-interval dosing (experimental group) and conventional dosing (control group). Methods: Patients in the experimental group received a 4-dose regimen (triptorelin 3.75 mg by intramuscular injection every 6 weeks for a total of 4 doses). The patients in the control group received a conventional regimen (1 injection every 4 weeks for a total of 6 doses). The main outcome measures were relief and recurrence of dysmenorrhea and related climacteric symptoms, reduction of uterine volume, and serum levels of 17-β-oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Results: The reliving rate of dysmenorrhea was 100% in patients treated with both the new regimen and the convention regimen after 6 months. The uterine volume was reduced 37.6% and 39.2%, respectively. And the levels of LH, FSH and E2 were decreased significantly (p < 0.001). The E2 levels were reduced to the postmenopausal level. The hormone profile of the experimental group was similar to that of the control group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The use of the extended-interval dosing regimen of triptorelin depot in patients with adenomyosis or endometriosis results in a consistent hypo-oestrogenised state, which is similar to that achieved by the conventional regimen. The new regimen reduces the cost of treatment.

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