Objectives: The effect of second pregnancy on human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage and outcome is modelled in longitudinal setting covering two subsequent pregnancies. Study Design: Among 329 (baseline pregnant) women prospectively followed up inthe Finnish Family HPV Study, two subcohorts were compiled: (i) 78 women (Group B) who became pregnant for the second time during the follow-up, and (ii) 100 women (Group A) who did not develop 2nd pregnancy. The effect of pregnancy on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) carriage and outcome was analysed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analyses and generalized estimating equation (GEE) modelling of the longitudinal data. Results: Women in the two groups were similar in their baseline HR-HPV status but significantly different in several known risk factors of HR-HPV infection. Group A women showed higher point prevalence of cervical and oral HR-HPV at the 36-month (p = 0.015) and 6-month (p = 0.024) follow-up visit, respectively. Among Group B women, prevalence of both cervical and oral HR-HPV significantly decreased during 2nd pregnancy (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002) as compared with inter-pregnancy period, but increased again after 2nd pregnancy. There was no difference in acquisition or clearance of cervical or oral HR-HPV between the two groups in univariate (Kaplan-Meier) or multivariate (Cox) survival analysis. In the GEE approach, 2nd pregnancy was not significantly associated with cervical or oral HR-HPV carriage or persistence when adjusted for all other covariates. Conclusions: Second pregnancy is of little impact on carriage and persistence of oral and cervical HR-HPV infections in a longitudinal setting over time.

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