Introduction: The selective suppression phenomenon of the cytotoxic immune response occurs in the endometrium at the beginning of decidualization. This process seems to be associated with an increase in the endometrial expression of proteins such as RCAS1 that are involved in the suppression of immune cell activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations in the RCAS1 blood serum concentration levels in women with uterine leiomyoma over the course of the different menstrual cycle phases and to compare these levels with those found in patients suffering from adenomyosis. Material and Methods: The sRCAS1 blood serum concentration level was determined for 87 patients, including 38 patients with both adenomyosis and uterine leiomyoma, and 49 suffering from leiomyomatosis alone. Results: Fluctuations in sRCAS1 blood serum concentration levels correlating with the menstrual cycle phases were demonstrated in patients suffering from uterine leiomyoma alone. The highest level of sRCAS1 concentration was found during the secretory cycle phase and the lowest during the proliferative cycle phase. However, no such fluctuations correlating with menstrual cycle phases were observed in patients suffering from both adenomyosis and leiomyoma. In fact, the level of sRCAS1 blood serum concentration in patients with adenomyosis remained almost constant. Patients with adenomyosis and leiomyoma were characterized by statistically significantly higher blood serum sRCAS1 levels during the proliferative cycle phase in comparison with the sRCAS1 blood serum levels in patients with leiomyoma alone. Conclusion: The lack of alterations in the sRCAS1 blood serum concentration levels observed in patients with adenomyosis may favor the development of the condition.

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