The objective of this study was to determine whether unilateral salpingectomy for hydrosalpinx could improve fecundity in women with an apparently normal contralateral tube. Two women with unilateral hydrosalpinx and with an apparently normal contralateral tube, and a long history of infertility, including failure to conceive despite several cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF), had unilateral salpingectomies prior to considering subsequent IVF cycles. Case 1 conceived after 1 month following surgery and case 2 after 8 months without the use of assisted reproductive technology. Though the ensuing pregnancies may have been fortuitous, the possibility exists that in cases of unilateral hydrosalpinx, the performance of salpingectomy may improve fecundity without the need for IVF. Hopefully the outcome of these 2 case reports may generate interest in a larger cooperative prospective study.